Home>Statistics, Facts & Advice>Statistics -- Part 2

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Statistical Information compiled and edited by Dr. Leon James


According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, traffic deaths in the U.S. fell to their lowest total in five years in 2006, and the rate of deaths per miles traveled dropped to a record low.

Highway crashes killed 42,642 people last year compared with the 43,510 who died in 2005, the lowest level in five years. The decline is the largest in numbers and percentage since 1992.

However, motorcycle rider fatalities continued their nine-year increase, reaching 4,810 in 2006. Motorcycle rider fatalities now account for 11 percent of total fatalities, exceeding the number of pedestrian fatalities for the first time since the NHTSA began collecting fatal motor vehicle crash data in 1975.

The drop in passenger car occupant fatalities was for the fourth year in a row, while the drop in light-truck occupant fatalities was the first since 1992.

Motorists, Nonmotorists Killed In Crashes
Description 2005 2006 Change Pct. Change
 
Total 43,510 42,642 868 -2.0
Passenger Vehicles 31,549 30,521 -1,028 -3.3
Passenger Cars 18,512 17,800 -712 -3.8
Light Trucks 13,037 12,712 -316 -2.4
Large Trucks 804 805 1 0.1
Motorcycles 4,576 4,810 234 5.1
Pedestrians 4,892 4,784 108 -2.2
Pedalcyclists 786 773 -13 -1.7
Other/Unknown 186 183 -3 -1.6
Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The NHTSA report also showed that the estimate of the number of people injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes declined for the seventh year in a row.

In 2006 just under 2.6 million people were injured compared to nearly 2.7 million in 2005. The data showed that the number of people injured declined in all categories except motorcycle riders and that the decline was highest for large-truck occupants and passenger car occupants.

Motorists, Nonmotorists Injured In Crashes
Description 2005 2006 Change Pct. Change
 
Total 2,669,000 2,575,000 124,000 -4.6
Passenger Vehicles 2,446,000 2,331,000 -115,000 -4.7
Passenger Cars 1,573,000 1,475,000 -98,000 -6.2
Light Trucks 872,000 857,000 -15,000 -1.7
Large Trucks 27,000 23,000 -4,000 -15
Motorcycles 87,000 88,000 1,000 1.1
Pedestrians 64,000 61,000 -3,000 -4.7
Pedalcyclists 45,000 44,000 -1000 -2.2
Other/Unknown 8,000 7,000 -1000 -13
Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The NHTSA said the fatality rate of 1.42 deaths per 100 million miles traveled in 2006 was the lowest rate recorded by the Department of Transportation.

original NHTSA summary

From: MADD North Carolina

How To Spot A Drunk Driver

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has developed a list of 20 tips that motorists can use to distinguish between a drunk and sober at night.

1. Turning with a wide radius.
2. Straddling the center of the road or lane marker.
3. Appearing to be drunk, i.e., eye fixation, face close to windshield.
4. Almost striking an object or other vehicle.
5. Weaving, or zig-zagging, across the road.
6. Driving on other than a designated roadway.
7. Swerving, or abruptly turning away from a generally straight course.
8. Driving slower than 10mph below speed limit.
9. Stopping without cause in a traffic lane.
10. Following others too closely.
11. Drifting, or moving in a straight-line at a slight angle to the roadway.
12. The left-hand tires are consistently on the center line or lane marker.
13. Erratic braking.
14. Driving into opposing or crossing traffic.
15. Signaling that is inconsistent with driving actions
16. Slow response to traffic signals (sudden stop, delayed start).
17. Stopping inappropriately (other than in lane).
18. Turning abruptly or illegally.
19. Accelerating or decelerating rapidly.
20. Driving with headlights off.

 


Facts about Novice drivers

"Novice drivers experience serious crash losses far beyond their representation in the driver population or their proportion of mileage driven. As a group they take between five and seven years to reach mature risk levels."

"Crashes are caused by what drivers choose to do as much as by what they are able (or unable) to do. Most of novice drivers' increased risk comes from inappropriate behavior -- deliberately taking risky actions, seeking stimulation, driving at high speeds, and driving while impaired. Compared to more experienced drivers, novice drivers more often choose to drive too fast and follow other vehicles too closely. They run yellow lights more, accept smaller gaps in traffic, and allow less room for safety. As a result of their choices, and perhaps because of skill deficiencies as well, they have more rear-end crashes and run-off-the-road crashes than experienced drivers."
(from Novice Driver Education Model Curriculum Outline found at this address.
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Reason has developed an extensive study of human error, based largely on the accident experiences of continuous-process industries, such as nuclear power and commercial aviation. Errors are defined as failure of planned actions to achieve the intended result, and they can be of two types: 1) mistakes, that is, the intention was not appropriate; and 2) lapses, that is, the action performed was not the one that was intended. Reason has used the error model as a base for survey research on drivers' errors and violations. Among other findings, men of all ages reported more mistakes and women more lapses.
(Reason, J. (1990). Human Error. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.)
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Streff extracted the "unsafe driving acts" (UDAs) recorded as contributing to 1.5 million police-investigated crashes in 11 states. While sensitive to the severe limitations of the police report data, Streff found violation of right of way, speeding, and following too close as the top three UDAs. (Streff, F.M. (1991). Crash avoidance: New opportunities for behaviour analysis.
Journal of Applied Behaviour Analysis, 24, 1, 77-79.)
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AUTO SOCIETY ADDRESSES MOBILE GADGET CONCERNS

The Society of Automotive Engineers, in cooperation with the Big Three U.S. automakers and a number of federal regulators and independent researchers, is studying the harmful effects of new automobile gadgetry, such as Global Positioning System-based navigation systems, cell phones and dashboard-mounted PCs. "The bottom line is we're very cognizant of driver overload and driver distraction," says the director of advanced engineering at GM's Delphi Automotive Systems. The SAE is drafting voluntary guidelines for the manufacture and installation of such devices in the hope of staving off federal regulation. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration recently issued a 300-page report on safety problems related to cell-phone use. (
Wall Street Journal 18 Mar 98)
(Quoted in Edupage, written by John Gehl (gehl@educom.edu)
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"Currently, the social cost of all road crashes in New Zealand is about $3 billion per annum. (This figure includes all crashes which result in death or injury, but excludes crashes resulting only in property damage.) About 45% of this amount is due to fatal crashes, about 40% is due to serious injury crashes and the remainder is due to minor injury crashes. In Australia, the cost of road trauma is estimated to be greater than $7.5 billion annually (Traffic Plan, 1998).

There are estimated to be about 35,000 road crashes (reported and unreported) every year which result in significant injury or death. About one in twenty result in at least one fatality, about one in five result in at least one serious injury, and the rest - about three out of every four crashes - result in a minor injury only.

Nearly two-thirds of injury crashes occur in cities, about one-quarter in the country, and the rest - about one in eight - in towns. Although most crashes happen in the city, this does not mean that cities are more dangerous than other places. They only appear that way because most people live in cities and most road travel is done there, and there is more chance of conflict because of the number of intersections. Furthermore, city crashes tend to be less severe than country crashes. As a result, country crashes are, in aggregate, more costly to society than country crashes.

Most road crashes are contributed to by human factors, road factors or vehicle factors or by any combination of them** Human factors are overwhelmingly the most important. They contribute to over 95% of all social costs, while road factors contribute to about 10% and vehicle factors about 7%. (Percentages add to more than 100% because some crashes have multiple causes.) However, both road and vehicle factors may go under-reported as they can be difficult for Police Officers to ascertain at the scene of a crash.

"Position" errors account 2.4 cents per vehicle-km, or 25% of total risk. They include failure to keep left, following too closely, suddenly braking or swerving, inattention, inexperience and tiredness (where not combined with any other cause). Excessive speed (not combined with alcohol) accounts for 1.5 cents per vehicle-km, or 15% of total risk.

"Priority" errors account for 1.3 cents per vehicle-km, or 13% of total risk. They mainly consist of failure to give way or stop (where not combined with, and therefore probably caused by alcohol or excessive speed). Overtaking errors account for 2% of total risk."

Note: The above is based on a report by Dr. Jiri Rada
jirirada@wnmeds.ac.nz
Senior Lecturer in Public Health, Wellington School of Medicine
University of Otago, Wellington South, New Zealand,(AOTEAROA)
Departmental homepage
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quoting from Improv Comedy Traffic School--News & Tips

California LAWS 1997

Reckless
The fine for driving recklessly while evading a police officer is raised to $10,000.00 (AB1999)

Racing

Police can arrest motorist engaged in a drag race and impound their vehicles as a way of thwarting such illegal contests on neighborhood streets. Previously, authorities needed to obtain a conviction before they could seize the car. (AB2288)

Yield

Motorist must yield to the right when overtaken by another vehicle whose headlights are flashing. (SB1518)

Driver's Licenses

Drivers with good records will be able to renew their licenses every five years instead of every four years. The renewal fee will rise from $12.00 to $15.00. (AB2352)

More? Go the the original location here.
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Selections from:
Copyright 1996 The Automobile Association Driver Education Foundation.
Authors: G Rolls and R Ingham from Department of Psychology from the University of Southampton.

The AA surveyed 526 drivers to establish the extent to which British motorists had experienced and perpetrated particular types of aggression when driving.

MAIN FINDINGS

Opinion of motorist behaviour

Overall, how do you feel the behaviour of motorists has changed in recent years?"

All motorists (per cent)

Better 2
Worse 62
No real change 34
Don't know 1

The majority of motorists feel that the behaviour of drivers has changed for the worse in recent years. Motorists aged between 35-54 were most likely to feel this way (73 per cent), compared with those aged 55+ (62 per cent) and those aged under 35 (49 per cent).

Motorists were then asked which of a list of particular types of behaviour they had experienced from other motorists in the last 12 months.

All motorists (per cent)

Aggressive tailgating (driving up very close behind) 62
Had lights flashed at me when other motorist annoyed 59
Received aggressive or rude gestures 48
Been deliberately obstructed or prevented from manoeuvring my vehicle 21
Received verbal abuse 16
Being physically assaulted 1
None of these 12

Almost nine in ten (88 per cent) of all respondents had experienced at least one of the types of behaviour listed above, in the last 12 months. Motorists aged 55+ were less likely to have done so (79 per cent).

The majority of motorists had been tailgated (62 per cent) and had lights flashed at them by other motorists (59 per cent), and about half (48 per cent) had received aggressive or rude gestures. One in five had been deliberately obstructed, and fewer had received verbal abuse (16 per cent) or been physically assaulted by other motorists (one per cent)

Men were more likely than women to have received aggressive or rude gestures

(52 per cent and 42 per cent respectively), verbal abuse (19 per cent and 10 per cent respectively), and are more likely to have been deliberately obstructed (24 per cent and 17 per cent respectively).

Types of aggressive behaviour displayed towards other motorists

All respondents were then asked which types of behaviour they had done to other motorists.

All motorists (per cent)

Flashed lights at them when annoyed with other motorists 45
Given aggressive or rude gestures 22
Given verbal abuse 12
Aggressive tailgating (driving up very close behind) 6
Deliberately obstructed or prevented from maneuvering my vehicle 5
Physically assaulted another motorist
None of these 40

60 per cent of all respondents admitted to doing one or more of the above to other motorists. It is debatable how willing people would be to admitting having done some of the more serious things described.

Men were more likely than women to have done any of the things listed (64 per cent and 54 per cent respectively).

Similarly, motorists aged under 35 years old were most likely to admit to having done any of the things listed (76 per cent) than were those aged 35-54 years old or those aged 55+ (34 per cent).

Almost half (45 per cent) of all motorists claimed, within the last 12 months, to have flashed their lights at another motorist when annoyed with them. One in five (22 per cent) have given aggressive or rude gestures, and one in ten (12 per cent) have given other motorists verbal abuse. Around one in twenty admit to having tailgated another driver (6 per cent) or deliberately obstructed another car (5 per cent). One respondent claimed to have physically assaulted another driver in the last 12 months.
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Even though there are fewer drivers on U.S. roads at night, the risk of death in a traffic accident more than doubles when darkness falls, the government's national accident database shows. In 1996, there were more than 18,000 drivers or passengers killed in nighttime car crashes. About 3,500 pedestrians and 368 bicyclists also were killed. See original story.


Posted 9/30/2003 1:00 PM     Updated 9/30/2003 3:54 PM
Study finds traffic congestion bad and getting worse
 

WASHINGTON (AP) If it seems like more of your time is spent stuck in traffic, you may be right. In cities large and small, the daily struggle with bumper-to-bumper traffic is getting worse.

The average rush-hour driver wasted almost two full days about 51 hours sitting in traffic in 2001, according to an annual report released Tuesday by the Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A&M University. That's an increase of four hours in the last five years.

The price tag: $69.5 billion in wasted time and gas, said the study, which looked at 75 urban areas.

"Congestion extends to more time of the day, more roads, affects more of the travel and creates more extra travel time than in the past," the study said.

  TRAFFIC TIME

The report found that the average rush-hour driver in Los Angeles spent about 90 hours waiting in traffic in 2001, far more than anywhere else.

The San Francisco-Oakland area was next at 68 hours, followed by Denver (64), Miami (63) and Chicago and Phoenix, which tied for fifth (61).

Tim Lomax, the study's co-author, said public transportation, traffic signals on freeway entrance ramps and other congestion-busting measures have kept a bad situation from getting even worse. For example, traffic signal coordination aimed at smoothing the flow of cars, trucks and buses saved commuters 16 million hours, the report said.

The study found some areas of the country where gridlock eased. The average delay dropped for commuters in San Antonio, Texas; Fresno, Calif.; and Pensacola, Fla.

Still, more improvements are needed, the report said. Among the recommendations: more roads to handle increased demand, additional bus and car pool lanes, and adjusted work hours for commuters.

In response to criticism about its earlier studies, the institute for the first time factored in improvements that cities are making, such as traffic light coordination and ramp metering, as well as the benefits of public transportation, Lomax said.

Data from the Federal Highway Administration and information from various state and local agencies was analyzed by the researchers to come up with the rankings.


Copyright 2003 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.


My top pet peeve about what drivers are doing is:
tailgating
darting in and out of lanes
blocking the passing lane
driving too fast
being discourteous
not yielding properly

Click above to vote

Alternative-fuel drivers face road rage

Drivers of alternative-fuel vehicles, with their distinctive blue license plates, are becoming targets of angry taxpayers' road wrath. Writer William Least Heat Moon says he gets a clear idea about how other drivers feel, seeing more and more of his fellow travelers' "middle digit opinion."

Randy Jenkins of Glendale, Ariz., has experienced similar boorishness on the road. He bought his electric car a year ago. Since September, when the alternative-fuel program's costs came to light, he has noticed an increase in drivers cutting him off or giving him angry stares. "There's a lot of one-finger saluting going on," said Jenkins, who runs a payroll service.

Perhaps the worst result of the alternative-fuel scandal is the stigma it has put on vehicles that don't pollute the air, such as Jenkins' Solectria, which he says he bought because his wife doesn't like getting gas. "I haven't gotten a dime out of the state of Arizona for this," he said. "I paid twice the price for a car, now to have my neighbors mad at me. ... And they don't know what motivated me to buy."

original here


 
RELATED STORY: THE AGE OF RAGE

The death of decency

By MATT SCHUDEL Staff Writer Sun-Sentinel South Florida

(...) We may not have clinical proof, but we have yet to find an exception to this rule: Everyone who drives a black pickup truck or sports-utility vehicle especially one with tinted windows is a jerk.

Man or woman, it doesn't matter. We see the evidence every day in traffic, and were waiting to be proved wrong.

Still waiting . . .

Many ordinary, law-abiding drivers are seized by a cold, silent panic whenever they look up and see a truck or SUV filling the entire width of the rear-view mirror. There's something menacing about these high-riding vehicles, and the arrogant, cell-phone-yakking road warriors behind the wheel know it. They honk if you don't turn right on red, they push you faster than you want to go, they ride your bumper until you move aside. Then, as they speed on past, they flip you the finger.

It's the sign of our times.

But it's not just trucks that are the problem, and it's not just traffic. A mean-spirited selfishness has taken hold of our culture, and it wont let go. It finds its purest voice in the Spanish expression Viva yo! long live me.

It's my world, so get out of my way.

Even if their numbers are small, those selfish louts with their big cars, loud voices and bad manners will continue to make our lives miserable for one simple reason: There's nothing we can do about it. The old values of courtesy, politeness and respect have been trampled under.

The indignities of the road are compounded with further indignities at work, at the movies, on the radio, from the profane mouths of strangers, in battles between neighbors. Pretty soon you've got more than a headache. You've got a national crisison your hands.

THE DICTIONARY defines incivility "as a lack of courtesy or politeness. " Once you're aware of it, you see it everywhere. It's practically the defining ethos of modern life. It has become so pervasive that, according to a 1996 poll for U.S. News & World Report, 89 percent of all Americans consider incivility a serious problem in our society. More than three-quarters of all Americans believe it has gotten worse in the last 10 years.

Incivility is the root of some of the most pernicious problems in our culture. Perceived slights on the street dissing, or the showing of disrespect have led to murder. In Brooklyn a teen-ager was shot to death when he didn't greet a second teen-ager with a high five. A young man was beaten and stabbed in a grocery store in suburban Bethesda, Md., when he complained to two men cutting ahead in the checkout line.

(...)

An unforeseen result of the casual revolution is that crass, selfish behavior has triumphed along with it. You cant say its mere coincidence. At baseball games today, men wear T-shirts or no shirts at all and shout profanities for all to hear. This is progress?

(...)

Its a serious thing, then, incivility. This open, dirty secret of American life is beginning to prompt some deep thinking. President Clinton, citing a "toxic atmosphere of cynicism" - and perhaps stung by attacks on his own character - has convened the National Commission on Civic Renewal, headed by former Democratic Sen. Sam Nunn and onetime Republican Cabinet member William J. Bennett. At least three other commissions, led by nationally prominent political figures Lamar Alexander, Bill Bradley and Patricia Schroeder, are dedicated to civic and cultural renewal.
No one can say why we've become such an uncivil society, but there are plenty of theories. In For Shame: The Loss of Common Decency in American Culture, James Twitchell, a professor at the University of Florida, links incivility with a lack of public shame and private responsibility. His chief culprit? Television advertising.
Another scholar, Nicholas Mills of Sarah Lawrence College in New York, attributes the "triumph of meanness" to the huge income disparity between average workers and corporate big shots.

Carol Travis, a Los Angeles psychologist and expert on anger, says incivility has grown worse because Americans blow up too easily.

"It's not that people are any angrier than they ever were," Travis has said. "The problem is that we let people get away with it. We celebrate aggressiveness."

(...)

BAD MANNERS HAVE always been with us, but in the past they didn't seem to be so widespread, let alone celebrated. When was the last time you saw a child shame another by rubbing one index finger across the other? Polite people are afraid, in this age of surliness, to criticize rudeness because they never know who might be carrying a gun. The moral authority of adult reproof and a haughty stare doesn't mean a thing today.

"Shame always hurts," says Twitch-ell, the University of Florida professor. "It's always repressive. But sometimes freedoms can be dangerous when indulged."
Not so long ago, high schools had courses in "civics," and manners were a central part of everyone's education. People learned to argue sensibly without erupting in anger. Civility made it possible to find a common ground of decency. It was the basis of everything from neighborliness to political de-bate.

Today, you can hardly discuss politics without incurring snickers of derision or outright hostility. Just the mention of the word shows how far politics has fallen in public respect.

Today, according to a Gallup poll, half of all Americans think politicians are "a little crooked." Slanted, one-dimensional attack ads are the norm. High-minded oratory has given way to mean-spirited spitefulness.

"You just wonder where is their sense of manners? Where's their sense of courtesy?" Newt Gingrich complained about the White House in 1995.

(...)

Small towns, once considered the cradles of kindness, have seen an "epidemic of incivility," according to Governing magazine, a publication for state and local officials. The meetings of county commissions and school boards have been interrupted by name-calling and fistfights.

It's no wonder the populace has turned cynical. Voter participation is at a historic low, and officeholders at every level have endured booing, hissing and obscene phone calls. Talk radio encourages listeners to trash public officials, no matter how irresponsible the claims, because it's good for ratings.

Incivility in politics is nothing new, however. In 1856, Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina attacked Massachusetts Sen. Charles Sumner on the floor of the Senate, nearly beating him to death with a cane. And the most uncivil American politician of the 20th century may have been Wisconsin Sen. Joseph McCarthy, who thrived in that mythic era of national grace, the 1940s and '50s. His brand of wanton finger-pointing has left its vindictive taint on American politics ever since. He'd feel right at home today.

FOR MORE THAN a decade, Florida has had the dubious distinction of having the nation's highest crime rate. That's only one of many reasons why this state may be the most uncivil place in the country.
(...)

In Florida, it seems to be illegal to use a turn signal while driving. The roadways are so crazy that we hardly notice news of gun battles between racing cars on Interstate 95. A few weeks ago in Miami, a security guard hired to enforce civil behavior argued with a man over a parking space, then allegedly shot him to death for double parking.
"We've had people pulling guns," says Maj. Ken Howse of the Florida Highway Patrol's Tallahassee office, "we've had shootings, we've had rammings."
We've had enough.

During a five-month period in 1997, seven state troopers were struck by cars on I-95 in Miami-Dade County. One trooper, Robert G. Smith, was killed when his patrol car, stopped on the shoulder, was rammed by a drunk driver going 100 miles per hour.
"It was getting to the point the troopers were afraid to stop their cars on the side of the road," notes Lt. Ernesto Duarte of the Miami-Dade office of the Florida Highway Patrol. "So many were getting hit."

As a result, FHP adopted its Eye on 95 program, one of the country's first efforts to crack down on road rage.

"It's an alarming subject to law enforcement," says Duarte.

Road rage is a serious problem everywhere, though, not just in Florida. Two-thirds of the country's 41,000 traffic deaths in 1996 were caused by aggressive driving.
"It may be morning in America crime down, incomes up, inflation nonexistent," a recent Time magazine article explained, "but it's high noon on the country's streets and highways."

Four out of five drivers, according to a national survey, are angry most or all of the time they are behind the wheel. The National Safety Council, which administers safe-driving classes in South Florida, has special programs for hostile drivers, conducted by teachers trained in psychology. All of this comes at a time when drivers education, once almost compulsory in high schools, has all but disappeared because of budget cuts. Today, only 30 to 50 percent of new drivers have had a course in safe driving.

Post the signs now: Rough Road Ahead.

RUDENESS AND DANGER are everywhere, not just on the highway. With the state's waterways clogged with high-powered boats driven by drunken pilots who don't know what they're doing, Florida has become the center of the new trend of "boat rage." Boat owners, like drivers, even pull guns on one another. It's no wonder Florida leads the nation in boating deaths.

Delays, crowded flights and luggage restrictions have turned air travel into a virtual bedlam. Almost every ticket agent or flight attendant has horror stories of outbursts by passengers.

"For some reason, an airplane brings out the worst in people," says Jane Goodman of the Association of Flight Attendants. "I haven't heard of anyone reaching over a store counter and punching a clerk. I have heard of people assaulting flight attendants."

(...)

In the United States, a crime committed on a commercial flight is a federal offense. On international flights, cases are usually tried in the country of destination. More cases of midair incivility are being prosecuted all the time.

The loutish Finneran, for instance, was fined $50,000 and given a jail term. A Palm Coast, Fla., man named James Mullay was sentenced to two years in prison by an English judge after he became so violent on a flight from Orlando that passengers had to break his nose to subdue him. Others have received prison sentences of up to four years for assaulting passengers and crew.

"It's not necessarily men, it's not necessarily women, its not necessarily first class, its not necessarily coach," says Goodman.

Incivility, it would appear, is an equal-opportunity offender.

SEVERAL YEARS AGO, a man in New York went on a bizarre one-man crusade against incivility. If strangers jostled him on the sidewalk without saying "excuse me," he attacked them with a knife. Two weeks ago in Los Angeles, one pedestrian stabbed another in the eye with an umbrella. When it comes to enforcing civil behavior, it's No More Mr. Nice Guy.

Down through the centuries, every society has taken pains to pass on its own rules of civility. One of the purposes of religion is to teach believers how to behave. Courtesy handbooks have been commonplace in Western culture since at least 1528, when Italian diplomat Baldassare Castiglione published his guide to chivalric manners, The Courtier (also called Etiquette for Renaissance Gentlemen).

Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote an essay called "On Manners," and Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, compiled a book of etiquette. Emily Post published her all-purpose etiquette book in 1922; the 75th-anniversary edition, by her great-granddaughter by marriage, Peggy Post, came out last year.

As early as the sixth century B.C., Aesop was passing on this moral message in his fable of the lion and the mouse: No act of kindness, no matter how small, is ever wasted. (Contrast this with the autobiographies of Dennis Rodman and rap star LL Cool J: Bad As I Wanna Be and I Make My Own Rules.)

(...)

But to attract an audience, each new show and its first-name host Oprah, Jenny, Jerry, Montel had to be more outrageous than its competitors.

It's impossible to say if one layer of scum is worse than another, but a good place to start is The Jenny Jones Show, March 6, 1995. On that date, an unsuspecting young man named Jonathan Schmitz was invited to meet a "secret admirer." No one told him that secret admirer was a man named Scott Amedure. Both men lived in the same trailer park in Michigan, and three days later a humiliated Schmitz killed Amedure with two blasts from a 12-gauge shotgun.

(...)

James Twitchell, the University of Florida professor, believes the Age of Incivility began in the 1960s, under the direct influence of television - in particular, TV advertising. Before television, according to Twitchell, advertising was often based on a sense of inadequacy. If you didn't buy a certain product - a car, toothpaste, pair of stockings - you were somehow not meeting social expectations. Individ-uality wasn't as important as fitting into the group.

"Of course shame inhibits behavior - that's the point," Twitchell writes in For Shame. "Of course it makes the individual feel bad. But it does so in the name of a higher social good."

With the rise of television, though, the old order changed. If a show or a commercial made a viewer feel upset or inadequate, the viewer would just switch the channel.

"The minute somebody tries to shame you," Twitchell says, "you're gone. Advertising is almost overwhelmingly based on the idea that 'you're special, you're important.' Civility is based on just the opposite."

SPORTSMANSHIP WAS once valued as the highest aim of athletics. You played with skill and determination, yes, but also with grace. You showed your opponent respect.

Sports remain one of the few realms of modern life in which etiquette is required. If you are whistled for unsportsmanlike conduct in football, you are penalized 15 yards. In basketball, you receive a technical foul.

(...)

Officials have been beaten and, in some cases, knocked unconscious by high-school and junior-high athletes. Sometimes coaches and parents even get in on the mayhem. Two years ago, a referee in a Philadelphia basketball league for 12-year-olds was so savagely beaten by coaches and fans that he received a concussion and a broken bone near his eye. A Wisconsin district attorney was removed from office after he pushed a referee into a wall during his son's junior-varsity basketball game.

(...)

CIVILITY IS, ultimately, a moral question: How do we treat others? That's why the issue reaches deeper than you might think at first. Civility is part of the fiber that binds our culture. If it frays and breaks, how long can a civil society survive?

Many people attribute the breakdown of public morality to a weakening influence of religion. But, in fact, churchgoing and belief in God are at their highest rates in decades.

In our hurried times, maybe were just too busy to be polite. Is civility simply out of date, like crinoline skirts and top hats?

(...)

"The greatest myth of all is that if you express anger you'll feel better," says writer and psychologist Carol Tavris. "We'll, you won't. The more you express anger, the angrier you get."

Anger resolution has become one of the hot topics in psychotherapy, as counselors teach people to settle their differences without rancor. Corpor-ations hire courtesy consultants to give their executives a more sensitive image. Some companies are beginning to rethink dress-down days, since casual wear leads to more confusion than standard business attire.

Etiquette books of all kinds - including gay etiquette and multicultural etiquette - fill entire shelves of bookstores. A few souls must still care about civility, or else Judith Martin's Miss Manners books wouldn't be best Sellers.
Still, the level of civility in this country has slid so far in the past 30 years that you have to wonder if anything can help us regain our dignity. How can the subtle minuet of civility overcome the boombox harshness of our modern Age?

Well, if nothing else is certain it's clear that we don't like the way our culture has been going. Incivility doesn't work. Incivility makes no one happy.

Maybe it's time to find something new to get us past the millennium before we crack up. Maybe, for a change, we should try being kind.


Aggressive Driving is Impaired Driving


Leon James, Ph.D.
Diane Nahl, Ph.D.

Emotional disturbances at the wheel can be as dangerous as alcohol or drug impairment. We believe that aggressive driving is largely a product of routinely driving in emotionally impaired states due to insufficient training. Of course there is a range from mild to severe degrees of impairment. There is diminished self-control and impaired judgment due to emotions that interfere with objective perception and lead to biased thinking. A variety of impairments are associated with aggressive driving:

  1. Under the influence of alcohol, drugs, medication, drowsiness, depression or severe pain.
    Driving under the influence of these mental states is aggressive because they distort perception, reduce self-control, and impose higher risk on other drivers.
  2. Under the influence of anger or rage.
    Driving under the influence of anger is aggressive because it loosens inhibitions, intensifies self-righteous indignation, and encourages retaliation and unlawful acts.
  3. Under the influence of fear or panic.
    Driving under the influence of fear is aggressive because it promotes irrational thought sequences that misinterpret the behavior of other drivers, perceiving threat where none is intended.
  4. Under the influence of stress.
    Driving under the influence of stress is aggressive because it increases irritability and explosive reactions, and reduces self-control.
  5. Driving distracted.
    Driving under the influence of distraction is aggressive because it endangers others due to inattention and imposes higher risk on other drivers.
  6. Under the influence of speed and risk addiction
    Driving under the influence of speed addiction is aggressive because it imposes higher risk on others.
  7. Self-appointed vigilante
    Driving under the influence of vengeance and retribution is aggressive because they encourage retaliation and unlawful acts.
  8. Under the influence of habitual rushing mania, including reacting impulsively or unpredictably under time pressure.
    Driving under the influence of rushing mania is aggressive because it reduces self-control, imposes higher risk on others, and endangers them through inattention or opportunistic maneuvers.
  9. Habitual disrespect for the law, ignoring regulations and harboring hostility towards officers.
    Being a scofflaw is aggressive because it encourages unlawful acts and imposes higher risk on others.
  10. Habitual disrespect for others, holding biased assumptions and making wrong conclusions.
    Driving under the influence of disrespect is aggressive because it encourages retaliation, imposes higher risk on others, misinterprets the behavior of other drivers, perceives threat where none is intended, and denigrates others.
  11. Lack of awareness and habitual denial of one's own driving mistakes.
    Driving under the influence of denial is aggressive because it reduces self-control, limits driver self-improvement and imposes higher risk on others.

 


THE EQ FACTOR

New brain research suggests that emotions, not IQ,
may be the true measure of human intelligence

BY NANCY GIBBS

(...)

If there is a cornerstone to emotional intelligence on which most other emotional skills depend, it is a sense of self-awareness, of being smart about what we feel. A person whose day starts badly at home may be grouchy all day at work without quite knowing why. Once an emotional response comes into awareness--or, physiologically, is processed through the neocortex--the chances of handling it appropriately improve. Scientists refer to "metamood," the ability to pull back and recognize that "what I'm feeling is anger," or sorrow, or shame.

(...)

Some impulses seem to be easier to control than others. Anger, not surprisingly, is one of the hardest, perhaps because of its evolutionary value in priming people to action. Researchers believe anger usually arises out of a sense of being trespassed against--the belief that one is being robbed of what is rightfully his. The body's first response is a surge of energy, the release of a cascade of neurotransmitters called catecholamines. If a person is already aroused or under stress, the threshold for release is lower, which helps explain why people's tempers shorten during a hard day.

(...)

It is easy to draw the obvious lesson from these test results. How much happier would we be, how much more successful as individuals and civil as a society, if we were more alert to the importance of emotional intelligence and more adept at teaching it? From kindergartens to business schools to corporations across the country, people are taking seriously the idea that a little more time spent on the "touchy-feely" skills so often derided may in fact pay rich dividends.

In the corporate world, according to personnel executives, IQ gets you hired, but EQ gets you promoted. Goleman likes to tell of a manager at AT&T's Bell Labs, a think tank for brilliant engineers in New Jersey, who was asked to rank his top performers. They weren't the ones with the highest IQs; they were the ones whose E-mail got answered. Those workers who were good collaborators and networkers and popular with colleagues were more likely to get the cooperation they needed to reach their goals than the socially awkward, lone-wolf geniuses.

original here


Controlling Anger Before It Controls You

(...)

Anger is "an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage," according to Charles Spielberger, PhD, a psychologist who specializes in the study of anger. Like other emotions, it is accompanied by physiological and biological changes; when you get angry, your heart rate and blood pressure go up, as do the levels of your energy hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline.

(...)

The goal of anger management is to reduce both your emotional feelings and the physiological arousal that anger causes. You can't get rid of, or avoid, the things or the people that enrage you, nor can you change them, but you can learn to control your reactions.

(...)

People who are easily angered generally have what some psychologists call a low tolerance for frustration, meaning simply that they feel that they should not have to be subjected to frustration, inconvenience, or annoyance. They can't take things in stride, and they're particularly infuriated if the situation seems somehow unjust: for example, being corrected for a minor mistake.

(...)

Is It Good To "Let it All Hang Out?"

Psychologists now say that this is a dangerous myth. Some people use this theory as a license to hurt others. Research has found that "letting it rip" with anger actually escalates anger and aggression and does nothing to help you (or the person you're angry with) resolve the situation.

It's best to find out what it is that triggers your anger, and then to develop strategies to keep those triggers from tipping you over the edge.

(...)

Cognitive Restructuring

Simply put, this means changing the way you think. Angry people tend to curse, swear, or speak in highly colorful terms that reflect their inner thoughts. When you're angry, your thinking can get very exaggerated and overly dramatic. Try replacing these thoughts with more rational ones. For instance, instead of telling yourself, "oh, it's awful, it's terrible, everything's ruined," tell yourself, "it's frustrating, and it's understandable that I'm upset about it, but it's not the end of the world and getting angry is not going to fix it anyhow."

(...)

The underlying message of highly angry people, Dr. Deffenbacher says, is "things oughta go my way!" Angry people tend to feel that they are morally right, that any blocking or changing of their plans is an unbearable indignity and that they should NOT have to suffer this way. Maybe other people do, but not them!

(...)

original here

Wed Jul 3, 2002

Cloudy Days May Increase 'Road Rage' Behavior

By Keith Mulvihill

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - While cloudy days have been known to bring on an occasional bout of the blues in some, new study findings suggest that sunless days may actually play a role in "road rage"--the highway phenomenon of aggressive driving marked by verbal or physical abuse.

In the new study, college students experienced nearly four times more symptoms of anxiety and irritability on a cloudy day compared with on a sunny day. Additionally, students were more likely to report observing aggressive driving, engaging in aggressive driving themselves, or having more feelings of anger and hostility on cloudy days than on sunny days.

Lead investigator, Dr. Mark Wagner, an associate professor of psychology at Wagner College in Staten Island, New York, presented the findings last month at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Society in New Orleans.

"I think that when a person is on the road, in a crowded urban area in particular, many things can cause them to feel stress (because there is the) constant threat from other drivers," Wagner explained in an interview with Reuters Health.

"Weather doesn't really cause (a person) to have road rage, but it can be a 'last straw' when other things have already caused them to feel irritable," he added.

In one portion of the study, Wagner and his team administered the same anxiety-measuring questionnaire to two separate groups of 40 college students. Students who took the questionnaire on a cloudy day garnered an anxiety scale rating of 14.5 while students who completed the questionnaire on a sunny day scored 3.7, Wagner told Reuters Health.

In a second part of the study, the investigators administered another questionnaire that assessed various aspects of road rage behavior on that day to four separate groups of 55 college students. The two groups who took the test on cloudy days reported that they engaged in more aggressive behavior while driving, observed more aggressive behavior while driving, and expressed more feeling of anger, hostility and irritation compared to those who took the test on sunny days, Wagner explained.

People may want to pay more attention to keep their own emotions in check, especially on cloudier days, and they should "watch out" for road rage from other people when the weather isn't sunny, Wagner said.

original here

 




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