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mso-level-tab-stop:4.5in; mso-level-number-position:left; text-indent:-.25in; mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Wingdings;} ol {margin-bottom:0in;} ul {margin-bottom:0in;} --> </style><!--[if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} </style> <![endif]--> </head> <body style="tab-interval:.5in" bgcolor="white" lang="EN-US" link="blue" vlink="purple"> <div class="WordSection1"> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><a href="..:index.htm">Home</a>&gt;<a href="index.htm">Surveys &amp; Tests</a>&gt;Interpretations&nbsp; |<span class="GramE">|&nbsp; </span></span><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><a href="..:travel:songs.htm">Songs About Cars</a><b> || </b></span><o:p></o:p></p> <h3><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-weight:normal">Aggressive Driving Analyzed</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">: </span><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-weight: normal"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">National Web Based Survey of 1,200 drivers (August, 2000)</span></strong></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></h3> <h4 style="text-align:center" align="center"><big><big><strong><span style="font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">The Effect of Age, Gender, and Type of Car Driven </span></strong><span style="font-size:13.5pt; font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial">Across the States</span></strong></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></big></big></h4> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">by</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> Dr. <a href="..:articles:book_toc.htm"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline: none">Leon James </span></a></span></strong><o:p></o:p></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table1" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td colspan="2" style="background:#E7FAFA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <h2 style="text-align:center" align="center"><strong><span style="font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Table of Contents</span></strong><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></h2> <p style="text-align:center" align="center"><strong><span style="font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">You can scroll down to explore things, or click on these topics</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="width:37.0%;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="37%"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal"><a href="#overview"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Overview of Findings</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal"><a href="#The_Second_Sample:"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline: none">Explanation about the Second Sample</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal"><a href="#How_to_read_the_Tables_and_Graphs:"><span style="text-decoration:none; text-underline:none">How to Read the Tables and Graphs</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#400040;font-weight:normal"><a href="#excellence"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 10:&nbsp; Your excellence as a driver</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal"><a href="#aggressiveness"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 11:&nbsp; My aggressiveness as a driver</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#not_signaling"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 16:&nbsp; Lane hopping without signaling</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#red"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 18: Driving through red lights</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#swearing"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 20:&nbsp; Swearing, cussing, and name calling</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#combo"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Items 21, 30, 38: Impatience, Hostility, Road Rage</span></a></span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td style="width:60.0%;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="60%"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#speeding"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 22:&nbsp; Breaking the speed limit </span></a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#speeding"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">by 15 to 25 mph</span></a></span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#insulting"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 26:&nbsp; Making an insulting gesture</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#tailgating"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 27:&nbsp; Tailgating dangerously</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#cruising"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 29:&nbsp; Cruising in the passing </span></a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#cruising"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">lane</span></a></span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#rage"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 39:&nbsp; Experiencing rage while driving</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#fantasies"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 40:&nbsp; Enjoying fantasies of violence</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#compassion"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 42: Feeling compassion for another driver</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#Pyelling"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Item 57:&nbsp; Parents yelling at another driver</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#initiatives"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none">Items 74 to 79:&nbsp; Support for Initiatives</span></a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="#interpretations"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline: none">My Interpretations of These Findings</span></a></span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/surveyblank.html"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;text-underline: none">See Exact Wording of the Questions here</span></strong></a><o:p></o:p></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:99.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.0pt;background:white;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:5.0pt 5.0pt 5.0pt 5.0pt" id="table30" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="1" width="99%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:5.0pt 5.0pt 5.0pt 5.0pt" valign="top"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 0in 0in" id="table31" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:0in 0in 0in 0in" valign="top"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.0pt;background:white; mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 0in 0in" id="table32" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="1" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:0in 0in 0in 0in"> <h3 style="text-align:center" align="center"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;color:red">Summary of Findings</span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></h3> <p>I take these results to be evidence that <a href="..:articles:testimony.htm">aggressive driving is a cultural norm</a> that we acquire from parents and the media.&nbsp; These anti-social practices behind the wheel <a href="..:articles:taxonomy.htm">have become a tradition</a>.&nbsp; Children imbibe them, boys and girls each in their own ways, suitable to their gender and age. Our driver education begins as infants while riding in cars driven by adults who yell, curse, swear, make insulting gestures, break driving regulations like going through red light or doing some serious speeding. <span class="GramE">Everyone</span> of these aggressive and <a href="http://www.coedu.usf.edu/zalaquett/roadrage/roadrage.html">hostile behaviors</a> is documented in this national survey of 1095 drivers.</p> <p>The culturally transmitted norms of aggressive driving are not unitary and rigid, but vary demographically through the population.&nbsp; <a href="..:articles:dbb.htm">Drivers behave badly</a> in a variety of ways, and these varieties are influenced by geographic state and <a href="http://www.dmv.ca.gov/vr/checklists/junk.htm">type of car</a>.&nbsp; Numerous statistically significant results are presented in dozens of graphs and tables throughout this document so that everyone can examine the pattern of relationships between specific types of aggressive behaviors in relation to age of drivers, their gender, the type of car they drive, and the state they drive in. </p> <p>As a society, therefore, we must recognize that cultural transmission and tradition are <a href="http://your.kingcounty.gov/solidwaste/cleanup/junkvehicles.asp">responsible factors</a> in aggressive driving, and contribute to it.&nbsp; Therefore <a href="..:articles:psychology.htm">cultural techniques of re-education</a> are needed to reverse the generational trend.&nbsp; We can collect all sorts of advice and hints for how to stop the <a href="..:facts:index.htm">increase in aggressive driving</a>. If this trend is not reversed, we can expect aggressive driving to increase, despite the more extensive <a href="..:legislation:index.htm">law enforcement</a> and electronic 'surveillance' initiatives that are being instituted throughout the country.&nbsp; </p> <p>The full solution or elimination of this problem lies in <a href="..:articles:three_step.htm">consciously and deliberately</a> reversing the cultural tradition that allows us to express hostility behind the wheel (see here for a list of the <a href="..:articles:9zones-inventory.htm">top complaints</a> drivers have about one another).&nbsp; It's obvious that feelings run very intense and to solve this problem is easier said than done.&nbsp; In <a href="..:myth.html">my role as DrDriving</a>, I have been providing various <a href="..:articles:book_toc.htm">types of self-management tools</a> and socially dynamic methods <span class="GramE">of&nbsp; motivating</span> drivers to accept the idea of <a href="..:articles:lifelong-driver-education-article.htm">Lifelong Driver Education</a> as a matter of social responsibility, as outlined above in this document. The overall goal of <a href="..:courses">driver education</a> must be explicitly stated in positive terms, rather than merely negative.&nbsp; </p> <p>The goal must be to evolve a cultural norm for driving that can be called <a href="..:articles:taxonomy.htm">Supportive Driving</a>, in opposition to Aggressive Driving.&nbsp; Oddly enough, research by psychologists has remained limited to a few problems--see my large <a href="..:facts:references.htm">bibliography of driving research here</a>. We need to understand the difference between these two opposing driving styles and philosophies.&nbsp; Car society is now beginning its second century. For the first century society was able to license drivers through minimal training and examination, and this approach worked for a while, but things started braking down in the 1950s when more and more drivers began to drive the fast moving vehicles placed in their hands.&nbsp; The death rate climbed to above 50,000 for many years.&nbsp; It was brought down to its current 42,000 fatalities a year through better <a href="http://www.storycountyiowa.gov/index.aspx?NID=498">car design</a>, better road engineering, more safety laws, <span class="GramE">better</span> paramedical services.&nbsp; Learning how to stop the increase of road rage can mean the difference between drivers having to <a href="http://www.donationline.com/carselling.htm">junk a car</a> or lose their life than simply sharing the road peacefully with those around us.</p> <p>Still, 42,000 fatalities year after year turns the highways into war zones (about 50,000 American fatalities were incurred in the entire six-year Vietnam war). Add to this amazing carnage, 6 million crashes with enormous suffering and disruption to lives for millions, and an economic cost of 200 billion per year, and you begin to realize that we are having an enormously serious problem to fix.&nbsp; The goal:&nbsp; to turn the 177 million drivers in this nation (the number is climbing...) into Supportive Drivers.&nbsp; Since <a href="..:articles:philosophy.htm">this philosophy</a> is contrary to tradition, habit, and convenience we are faced with people's massive opposition to their self-transformation.&nbsp; Drivers have their own theory as to why <span class="GramE">drivers makes</span> them mad.&nbsp; These <a href="..:issues:issuesindex.html">popular but non-adaptive attitudes and rationalizations</a> must be abandoned in favor of emotionally more intelligent alternatives.</p> <p>I have been studying this resistance to driver self-improvement for two decades, first <a href="..:articles:musings.htm">in myself</a>, then with other drivers as well.&nbsp; A necessary departing strategy had to be the identification of aggressive behaviors by drivers.&nbsp; This led to a <a href="..:articles:taxonomy.htm">taxonomy or inventory of hundreds of driving behaviors</a> in three areas of the driver's habits:&nbsp; affective (the driver's attitudes, motives, and moral feelings), cognitive (the driver's emotional intelligence and judgment), and sensorimotor (the driver's vehicle manipulation (including gestures and verbalizations).&nbsp; I also used this taxonomy of driver behaviors to catalogue the <a href="..:articles:9zones-inventory.htm">complaints drivers have</a> about one another.&nbsp; You can get the details by examining the various links I provided for each topic in my <a href="..:courses:conference_paper.htm">table outlining the details</a> of lifelong driver education.&nbsp; I have also used this approach in a video course for driver re-education based on these same objectives.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">What do people consider dangerous?</span></b><o:p></o:p></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:70.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;background:#FFFFCC;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184" id="table2" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="70%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Is this act dangerous?</span></b></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" nowrap="nowrap" valign="top"> <p style="text-align:center" align="center"><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Percentage<br> who say YES</span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Tailgating</span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">84%</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Passing on the shoulder</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">83</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:3"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Driving through yellow lights that are turning red</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">73</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:4"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Waiting until the last second to merge with traffic on the highway</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">73</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:5"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Failing to yield to merging traffic</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">71</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:6"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Changing lanes without signaling</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">70</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:7"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Driving 10 mph or more over the speed limit</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">62</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:8"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Cruising in the passing lane, forcing others to pass on the right</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">58</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:9"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Making rude gestures</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">50</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:10"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Flashing high beams at the car in front of you</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">54</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:11"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Driving 10 mph or slower under the speed limit</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">42</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:12"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Pulling into a parking space someone else is waiting for</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">39</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:13"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Double parking</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">38</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:14;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="width:448.0pt;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top" width="448"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Honking the horn</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">26</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial">How do Americans define aggressive driving?</span></strong><o:p></o:p></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:63.0%;mso-cellspacing:0in;background:#CCFFCC;mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;mso-padding-alt:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" id="table3" border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="63%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Is this act aggressive?</span></b></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" nowrap="nowrap" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Percentage<br> who say YES</span></b><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Tailgating</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">95%</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:3"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Making rude gestures</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">91</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:4"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Passing on the shoulder</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">90</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:5"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Pulling into a parking space someone else is waiting for</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">88</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:6"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Failing to yield to merging traffic</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">85</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:7"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Flashing high beams at the car in front of you</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">74</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:8"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Waiting until the last second to merge with traffic on the highway</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">66</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:9"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Changing lanes without signaling</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">66</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:10"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Driving through a yellow light that is turning red</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">62</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:11"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Honking the horn</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">53</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:12"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Double parking</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">53</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:13;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="width:421.0pt;padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top" width="421"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">Driving 10 mph or slower under the speed limit</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt 3.0pt" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span class="bodycopy"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">27</span></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><span class="GramE"><span style="font-family:Arial">A nationally representative telephone survey of 1000 adult licensed drivers was conducted by Global Strategy Group between March 17 and March 28, 2000</span></span><span style="font-family:Arial">.&nbsp; Concurrent telephone surveys were conducted with approximately 100 adult licensed drivers in each of five cities Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland, Indianapolis, and Minneapolis. A summary of the key findings from the national and city-specific surveys was then developed. The margin error is <u>+</u> 3.1%.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><a href="http://www.drivers.com/cgi-bin/go.cgi?type=ART&amp;id=000000381&amp;static=1"><span class="GramE">original</span> here</a></span></p> <h4><a name="overview"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;color:black">Overview of the Findings thus far...</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:overview"></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></h4> <h4><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; color:black;font-weight:normal">The pattern of results thus far lead me to the following conclusions:</span></strong><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></h4> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Aggressive driving is made up of a syndrome of habits that stick together with plenty of individual variation.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Young drivers are more aggressive in all driving behaviors than older drivers; senior drivers are the least aggressive.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Men are more aggressive than women when they drive sports cars and light trucks (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.); women are more aggressive than men when they drive SUVs and luxury cars.&nbsp; For economy and family cars, it depends on the specific behavior.</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black">There appear to be three </span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#004080;font-weight:normal">psychological categories</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black"> of vehicles people drive:&nbsp; </span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; color:#FF8040;font-weight:normal">tough driving cars</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black"> (sports, light trucks, SUVs), </span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#FF8040;font-weight:normal">soft driving cars</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black"> (economy, family), and </span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#FF8040;font-weight:normal">special driving cars</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black"> (vans, luxury).&nbsp; Each of these psychological categories has its own aggressive driving syndrome that distinguishes it from the others.</span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">It is evident that aggressive driving is a cultural norm that is generationally transmitted as a habit imbibed in childhood when riding with parents and reinforced by repeated media portrayals of drivers behaving badly. &nbsp; To get us out of this, I propose a program of Lifelong Driver Education.</span></strong></p> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black; font-weight:normal">Now for the details, look below.</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">&nbsp; It takes me many hours to tabulate, analyze, present, and write up the survey results--but it is a labor of love.&nbsp; As DrDriving, I feel it my duty to help the public gain understanding of the aggressive driving problem.&nbsp; Enjoy!&nbsp; And I'd be delighted to read your comments!</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial;color:black"> </span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal"><a href="mailto:dyc@drdriving.org">E-mail DrDriving </a></span></strong><o:p></o:p></p> <form target="google_window"> <!-- SiteSearch Google --> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="hl0" value="en" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="cof0" value="GALT:#008000;GL:1;DIV:#336699;VLC:663399;AH:center;BGC:FFFFFF;LBGC:336699;ALC:0000FF;LC:0000FF;T:000000;GFNT:0000FF;GIMP:0000FF;FORID:1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="safe0" value="active" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="oe0" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="ie0" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="forid0" value="1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing:1.5pt; 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mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="client0" value="pub-7012167060891058" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </form> <h4><a name="The_Second_Sample:"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;color:black">The Second Sample:</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:&quot;The_Second_Sample\:&quot;"></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></h4> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">The sample was made up of 1095 people who clicked on the link that announces DrDriving's Road Rage Survey on my site, and decided to fill it out.&nbsp; The answers were entirely anonymous, as the form did not collect name information.&nbsp; No other <span class="GramE">information&nbsp; such</span> as cookies was obtained. &nbsp; The time period was between September 23, 1998 and January 16, 1999.&nbsp; The mean age was 28 with an overall range of 14 to 94 years old. &nbsp; However, the distribution for years of experience for this sample of 1095 is highly skewed, with the <span class="GramE">majority&nbsp; of</span> the sample having less than 10 years experience. &nbsp; <a href="experience5.jpg">Click here to see the distribution</a>.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">There were somewhat more male respondents (612) than female (475).&nbsp; I think that this sample would be representative of that portion of our general population that is Internet literate. &nbsp; Note that this second sample of 1095 drivers is entirely different and independent from the <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/tables.html">earlier survey reported here</a>.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Although we cannot consider this group of 1095 respondents as a random sample, nor a representative sample of the 177 million US drivers, we can make legitimate comparisons between the demographic sub-groups that happen to be in the sample.&nbsp; For instance<span class="GramE">,&nbsp; the</span> largest sub-group had less than 10 years driving experience, but there were smaller sub-groups that had a lot more experience:&nbsp; over 100 drivers (or 10% of the sample) had up to 24 years of experience, and almost as many had 30 years of experience.&nbsp; So we can do a statistical comparison between these sub-groups, and if it comes out significant, you can generalize the results to all drivers in that age category.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">By policy, I present only significant results, though once in a while I will use a "strong trend" if there is statistical indication that with increased size of the sample, the strong trend will turn into a significant difference.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">By tradition and accepted standards, I use the 5% error rate (that is, the 95% significance rate) for significance levels, though with large samples such as this, the significance levels are typically much higher (p&lt;<span class="GramE">.0001</span>) as you'll see by inspecting the Tables provided with each Graph.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">I will discuss four interrelated issues:&nbsp; </span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal">the Gender Issue</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">; </span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:blue;font-weight:normal">the Age Issue</span></strong><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight: normal">;</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; color:black;font-weight:normal"> and the </span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:teal;font-weight:normal">Type of Car Issue</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#408080;font-weight:normal">.&nbsp; </span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#400040;font-weight:normal">I will also discuss </span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#804000;font-weight:normal">Geographic Location</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#400040;font-weight:normal"> by State.&nbsp; By clicking on the sub-headings for each survey item I analyze<span class="GramE">,&nbsp; you</span> can inspect the Tables and the Graphs for that item.&nbsp; Then please click <span class="GramE">Back&nbsp; to</span> continue here.</span></strong></p> <p><a name="How_to_read_the_Tables_and_Graphs:"><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;color:black">How to Read the Tables and Graphs:</span></strong></a></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">If you look at the <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/surveyblank.html">survey form <span class="GramE">itself</span></a>, you'll be able to see better what the numbers mean.&nbsp; I use two types of numbers<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; a</span> scale from 1 to 10 and percentages.&nbsp; All results are in these two types of numbers.&nbsp; For example, when you click on <span class="GramE">the&nbsp; link</span> below, </span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Times;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/survey2/aggressiveness9XtypeXgender.jpg"><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red">AGGRESSIVENESS SELF-RATING--by Gender and Type of Car</span></a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; color:black;font-weight:normal">, you'll see statistical tables and graphs.&nbsp; The Tables show you the size of each group ("Count"), the mean for that scale or percentage, and significance tests ("P-Value").&nbsp; The Bar Graph and the Line Graph show the same thing.&nbsp; As the <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/surveyblank.html">survey form shows</a>, How Do You Rate Your Own Aggressiveness as a Driver (item 9<span class="GramE">),</span> is measured on a scale from 1 (slight) to 10 (strong).&nbsp; The vertical for the bar graph shows <span class="GramE">that&nbsp; male</span> drivers of sports cars rate themselves near 7 while male drivers of vans rate themselves under 6 -- a highly significant difference as show by the p Value Table.</span></strong></p> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black; font-weight:normal">Similarly with percentages.</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">&nbsp; For instance if you click on the link below for </span></strong><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/survey2/swearing20XtypeXgender.jpg">SWEARING--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">, you can see that the Mean for female drivers of sports cars ("sports, F") is 73% (.729 X 100= 72%).&nbsp; This means that 72% of female van drivers report swearing and cussing on a regular basis.&nbsp; On the other hand, for male drivers of economy cars ("economy<span class="GramE">,M</span>") the percentage is 46% (.459X100=46%). This means that 46% of male drivers of economy cars confess to swearing on a regular basis.&nbsp; In this way you can interpret the other Tables and Graphs.</span></strong></p> <p><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt"><a href="..:travel:songs.htm">Songs About Cars</a></span></b></p> <p><a href="cars.htm"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#0080FF; font-weight:normal">Here is information about the type of cars people reported in this sample</span></strong></a></p> <p><a name="aggressiveness"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040">Item 11: Rate your aggressiveness as a driver: 1=slight; 10=strong</span></strong></a></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="aggressiveness9Xstates.jpg">AGGRESSIVENESS SELF-RATING--by States</a></span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="aggressiveness9Xage.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">AGGRESSIVENESS SELF-RATING--by Age</span></strong></a></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="aggressiveness9Xgender.jpg">AGGRESSIVENESS SELF-RATING--by Gender</a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="aggressiveness9Xtype.jpg">AGGRESSIVENESS SELF-RATING--by Type of Car</a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="aggressiveness9XtypeXgender.jpg">AGGRESSIVENESS SELF-RATING--by Gender and Type of Car</a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="aggressiveness9XtypeXage.jpg">AGGRESSIVENESS SELF-RATING--by Age and Type of Car</a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="aggressiveness9Xcorrelations.jpg">THE AGGRESSIVENESS SYNDROME--What Traits Go Together</a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Overall, men describe themselves higher on aggressiveness than women<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; 5.5</span> for women vs. 6 for men.&nbsp; This is statistically significant.&nbsp; In terms of size of the difference, half a scale unit on a 10-point scale amounts to 5% difference (from 5.5 to 6 on a 10-point scale).&nbsp; This is not a large difference, yet is consistent, and therefore it grows cumulatively.&nbsp; For example, a 5% reduction in national crash rates (about 5 million per year<span class="GramE">),</span> would save 2000 lives a year, 250,000 injuries, and 8 billion dollars in annual cost.&nbsp; Over the lifetime of a driver's career, typically about 60 years, the reduction would cumulate to 120,000 lives saved, one and a half million injuries less, and 480 billion dollars.&nbsp; <span class="GramE">All this in the lifetime of one generation of drivers.</span>&nbsp; So I conclude that the overall lesser aggressiveness of women drivers contribute a tremendous benefit to society.&nbsp; Thank you women drivers!&nbsp; This should also be an encouragement for men to reduce their aggressiveness.</span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">APPEARANCE: The STX is a pickup truck, all right - high and handsome. The Ranger got a major restyling a couple of years ago, and has a new grille this year. The corners have been rounded off, the windshield is raked back, and the result is a stylish, <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal">aggressive</span></strong> truck. The Super Cab STX has bold, eye-catching graphics for extra flashiness.&nbsp; From <span class="GramE">an add</span> <a href="http://www.theautochannel.com/vehicles/new/reviews/wk9522.html">to be found here</a>.</span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">It's important to discover what are the motives of drivers to maintain an attitude of aggressiveness behind the wheel.&nbsp; By contrasting the answers given by the sub-groups of the overall sample, we can uncover some of these hidden cultural forces operating within the driver's mind.&nbsp; This is because each demographic sub-group corresponds to a cultural norm.&nbsp; <span class="GramE">Differences in aggressiveness between young drivers and older drivers is</span> a cultural norm about how we change our behavior as we get older. &nbsp; Differences between men and women drivers constitute a cultural norm about how men and women behave in our society.&nbsp; For these reasons, contrasting demographic sub-groups of drivers reveals cultural forces in operation in the mind of drivers.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">If you inspect the bar plot and <a href="aggressiveness9XtypeXgender.jpg">line graph for Aggressiveness</a> in relation to the type of car one drives, you are struck by certain obvious contrasts.&nbsp; In general, or overall, women describe themselves as less aggressive than men describe themselves.&nbsp; You can say that in general male drivers have a more aggressive self-image behind the wheel.&nbsp; But this overall tendency is not universal across all the types of cars people drive in this country.&nbsp; As the graph shows, men who drive <span style="color:#EA9173">family cars</span> see themselves as less aggressive than the women who drive family cars.&nbsp; Similarly, both the men and the women who drive <span style="color:#EA9173">light trucks (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.)</span> see themselves as more aggressive than other drivers.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">There are additional facts you can see in the Tables and Graphs.&nbsp; For instance, the most aggressive drivers by their own <span class="GramE">admission,</span> are men who drive <span style="color:#EA9173">sports cars and SUVs</span>.&nbsp; Among women drivers, the most aggressive by their own admission are those who drive light trucks and SUVs.&nbsp; These women see themselves as more aggressive than men who drive <span style="color:#EA9173">family car and economy cars</span>. So you can see the picture is a complex one.&nbsp; There <span class="GramE">are&nbsp; overall</span> tendencies, and special conditions.&nbsp; Obviously, aggressiveness varies on a continuum so that some drivers do aggressive things more often, and some do more serious and dangerous things than others. &nbsp; Both frequency and seriousness are thus important factors to consider.&nbsp; My road rage survey gives information on both of these.&nbsp; Frequency is shown by ratings of regularity and <span class="GramE">severity is shown by the item in question</span> (e.g., going over the speed limit vs. chasing someone, or, shining your brights vs. cutting off).</span></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%"> </span></div> <div align="center"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table5" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#F4F4EA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal">DrDriving: &nbsp; I used to drive a Volvo 240dl station wagon. Cars just don't come safer then that. But when we went to Maui a year ago, we rented a Ford Expedition. Talk about instant power trip! That truck is huge! It puts you so high up, you feel like all other cars and drivers are inferior. I actually said to myself, while driving this monster, "Well, I'm bigger than you so you better get out of my way!" The mentality becomes, "Why should I look out for you? I'm 3 times your size, you look out for me!" Tell me who wouldn't get a power trip and drive more aggressively driving around in Big Foot. I'd really like to meet that person</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.drdriving.org/gripes/suv.html">Here is a controversial debate about SUVs</a>&nbsp; |<span class="GramE">|&nbsp; </span><a href="http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/499s2000/stillman/are%2520suv%2520drivers%2520more%2520aggressive.htm">and some opinions by individuals</a> ||&nbsp; <a href="http://www.howard.net/ban-suvs.htm">Here's The Sport Utility Vehicle Anti-Fan Club</a></span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The least aggressive self-image is held by women who drive vans, while the men who drive vans see themselves as much more aggressive.&nbsp; Men who drive sports cars and light trucks (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.) have the most aggressive self-image.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Some pusize="3les are raised by these data.&nbsp; Why are drivers in <span style="color:#FF8040">Illinois, Michigan, and New York</span> see themselves as so much less aggressive (around 5 on the 10-point scale), while drivers in <span style="color:#FF8000">California and Pennsylvania</span> are highest (over 6)?&nbsp; If you take a look at the self-ratings for driving excellence (below), you will see that Illinois, Michigan, and New York are the lowest in excellence.&nbsp; So the drivers in those States that see themselves as least <span class="GramE">aggressive,</span> also see themselves as least skilled.&nbsp; Why?&nbsp; Is there a negative relationship between aggressiveness ratings and excellence ratings?&nbsp; Look at <a href="aggressiveness9Xcorrelations.jpg">this correlation matrix</a>.&nbsp; It demonstrates what I call "<span style="color:red">the aggressive driver syndrome</span>."&nbsp; The Table shows what other factors are correlated with aggressiveness self-ratings.&nbsp; All correlations shown are highly significant statistically, though they are only one of several factors to be considered as shown by the significant but low correlations.</span></strong><o:p></o:p></p> <div align="center"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table6" border="1" cellpadding="0" height="118" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:honeydew;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#0080FF;font-weight:normal">DrDriving: &nbsp; I <span class="GramE">agree&nbsp; that</span> women are becoming more aggressive drivers. I will admit that I'm also an aggressive driver. Over the course of 7 years I've driven 5 different cars in my <span class="GramE">life time</span>. One car was a small red Mazda Miata and another was a semi-big 4X4 V-6 truck. When I drove the truck I didn't drive as fast but I felt a little tougher. When other cars provoked me to race I would ignore them. However, when I drove the Miata I was a very aggressive driver. I was constantly speeding and weaving through the lanes on the freeway. If another car wanted to race, I would take the challenge. Now I have a small red Honda civic and I could really care less, I just do my own thing.&nbsp; I'm still aggressive when I drive, but not nearly like I was when I drove the tiny sporty Miata</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; color:maroon;font-weight:normal">. </span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">If you inspect the correlation matrix you will see that the aggressiveness syndrome is made of the following driver behaviors:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">1.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">feeling</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more stress</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">2.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">swearing</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more often</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">3.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">acting</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more frequently in a hostile manner</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">4.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">speeding</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> on a regular basis</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">5.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">yelling</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more at other drivers</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">6.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">honking</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more at other drivers</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">7.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">making</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more insulting gestures</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">8.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">tailgating</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more often</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">9.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">cutting</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> off more often</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">10.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">expressing</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> road rage behavior more often</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">11.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">feeling</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> enraged more often</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">12.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">more</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> often indulging in violent fantasies</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">13.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">feeling</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more competitive with other drivers</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">14.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">rushing</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> more of the time</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">15.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">more</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> often feeling the desire to drive dangerously</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: Times;mso-bidi-font-family:Times"><span style="mso-list:Ignore">16.<span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">feeling</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> less calm and level headed behind the wheel</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">These 16 driving behaviors define the aggressive driver syndrome. &nbsp; They are all significantly intercorrelated.&nbsp; This means that if you do one of them regularly, you will also do the other 15 on a regular basis.&nbsp; The fact that aggressive driving behaviors occur together as a syndrome is evidence for my theory that aggressive driving styles are cultural norms we learn from parents, television, and one's natural tendency when unchecked or disciplined.</span></strong><o:p></o:p></p> <form target="google_window"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="hl1" value="en" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="cof1" value="GALT:#008000;GL:1;DIV:#336699;VLC:663399;AH:center;BGC:FFFFFF;LBGC:336699;ALC:0000FF;LC:0000FF;T:000000;GFNT:0000FF;GIMP:0000FF;FORID:1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="safe1" value="active" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="oe1" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="ie1" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="forid1" value="1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing:1.5pt; background:white;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table39" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:32.0pt"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:32.0pt" nowrap="nowrap" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><a href="http://www.google.com/"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none"><img id="_x0000_i1045" src="http://www.google.com/logos/Logo_25wht.gif" alt="oogle" align="middle" border="0" height="34" width="34"></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:32.0pt" nowrap="nowrap"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="domains1" value="DrDriving.org;www.DrDriving.org" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span> <label for="sbi1" style="display:none"> Enter your search terms </label> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="q1" size="31" maxlength="255" value="" type="text"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="sa1" value="Search" type="submit"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" nowrap="nowrap"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing: 1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table40" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="sitesearch" value="" checked="checked" type="radio"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="color:black"> <label for="ss4" title="Search the Web"> Web</label></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="sitesearch" value="DrDriving.org" type="radio"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="color:black"> <label for="ss5" title="Search DrDriving.org"> DrDriving.org</label></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"><br> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"><br> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="client1" value="pub-7012167060891058" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </form> <p><a name="_Toc474896274"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial">Definition of Aggressive Driving</span></strong></a><o:p></o:p></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table7" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#F2F2F9;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">"Finding no one speaking out against what he calls the "SUV Scourge," Karolyi launched the Poseur SUV Web site in September 1997. "I tried to create a unique site that makes a point but doesn't take itself too seriously," he says. "I believe this is a great way to communicate ideas." Thousands of visitors agree  the Poseur SUV page receives an approximate 300 hits a day, on average, and Karolyi receives about 100 e-mails each month, mostly in support of his ideas. Although he also gets e-mail from SUV owners, it's not as belligerent as one might suppose. "A lot of poseur SUV owners write praising the page; they enjoy laughing at themselves and at the SUV trend," Karolyi observes. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Interested in more than just poking fun at the SUV trend, Karolyi would like to see the rules of the road reformed to limit the abuses of SUVs. "Most drivers are ill-equipped to drive such a large beast properly," Karolyi remarks. "Drivers of extra-large vehicles such as the Excursion, Expedition, and Suburban, as well as other large vehicles such as motor homes, should be required to get some kind of 'Large Vehicle Endorsement' on their drivers license. This should involve taking a course on large vehicle operation and safety, and passing a driving test. I think this requirement would serve the dual purpose of deterring buyers who don't really need large vehicles, as well as properly training those who do." </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.cars.com/carsapp/national/?srv=parser&amp;act=display&amp;tf=/features/siteofweek/990426/sow_990426_index.tmpl#related">Original continues here</a></span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><a name="excellence"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040">Item 10</span></strong></a><span class="GramE"><span style="mso-bookmark:excellence"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040">: &nbsp; Rate</span></strong></span></span><span style="mso-bookmark:excellence"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; color:#800040"> yourself as a driver&nbsp; 1=slight; 10=excellent</span></strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="excellence10Xstates.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">EXCELLENCE AS A DRIVER SELF-RATING--by States</span></strong></a></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="excellence10Xage.jpg">EXCELLENCE AS A DRIVER SELF-RATING--by Age</a></span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="excellence10Xgender.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">EXCELLENCE AS A DRIVER SELF-RATING--by Gender</span></strong></a></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="excellence10Xtype.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">EXCELLENCE AS A DRIVER SELF-RATING--by Type of Car</span></strong></a></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="excellence10XtypeXgender.jpg">EXCELLENCE AS A DRIVER SELF-RATING--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="excellence10XtypeXage.jpg">EXCELLENCE AS A DRIVER SELF-RATING--Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">One of the discoveries I made by studying drivers for many years is that they like to underestimate their errors and overestimate their skills.&nbsp; In this sample, people rated themselves as a driver on a 10-point scale, from (1) poor to (10) excellent.&nbsp; Men rate themselves close to 8 while women rate themselves close to 7. &nbsp; This is is significant and substantial, but the interpretation is not entirely clear.&nbsp; It's possible that men are better drivers than women, but not necessarily. &nbsp; It could be that men underestimate their errors, while women are more realistic or honest.&nbsp; What's interesting when you look at the <a href="excellence10.jpg">graph</a><span class="GramE">,</span> is that this gender difference is replicated across the 10 states for which I had enough respondents to attain reliability.</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">W<strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal">hen you look at the men only from these 10 States, you can see that they vary in excellence ratings of themselves.&nbsp; <span style="color:#EA9173">California and Colorado drivers</span> see themselves as better than drivers from the other 8 States, especially <span style="color: #EA9173">Georgia and Michigan</span>. &nbsp; It would be hard to explain these differences without further research.&nbsp; If you have ideas, let me know--there is an e-mail button at the bottom of this document. &nbsp; When you look at women only, <span style="color:#EA9173">Florida</span> women drivers see themselves as good as Florida men drivers, but women drivers in <span style="color:#EA9173">Illinois and New York</span> see themselves as much lower than men drivers when it comes to self-ratings of oneself as a driver.</span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Let's look more deeply into the driver's self-assessment.&nbsp; Look at the distribution of how drivers rate themselves on a 10-point scale of <span style="color:#FF8040">Excellence as a Driver</span>:</span></strong><o:p></o:p></p> <div align="center"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table8" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><img id="_x0000_i1052" src="surveys/Macintosh%20HD:leon:drdriving%20lunar:surveys:../images/excellence10.jpg" alt="pe2.jpg (14129 bytes)" border="0" height="375" width="462"><img id="_x0000_i1053" src="surveys/Macintosh%20HD:leon:drdriving%20lunar:surveys:../images/excellenceCjpg.jpg" alt="pe3.jpg (11865 bytes)" border="0" height="272" width="259"></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">As you can see, approximately 2 out of 3 drivers consider themselves almost perfect (10 or 9) in excellence as a driver (64%), while 1 in 3 (34%) consider themselves above average (5 to 8).&nbsp; This indicates to me that most drivers overlook their own mistakes and overestimate their competence.&nbsp; One way to examine this hypothesis is to compare the aggressiveness of the two-thirds majority of drivers who see themselves as near perfect (9 or 10 on a 10-point scale) with the one-third minority that see themselves above average and with room to improve.&nbsp; Here is what that looks like:&nbsp; self-rated <span style="color:#FF8040">Aggressiveness</span> in relation to self-rated <span style="color:#FF8040">Excellence</span> as a Driver</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><img id="_x0000_i1054" src="surveys/Macintosh%20HD:leon:drdriving%20lunar:surveys:../images/excellence10b.jpg" alt="pe3.jpg (15147 bytes)" align="middle&quot;&quot;478" border="0" height="395" width="480"></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">You can see the dramatic effect!&nbsp; The drivers who consider themselves near perfect in excellence with no room to improve (9 or 10 on a 10-point scale), also confess to significantly more <span style="color:#FF8040">aggressiveness</span> than drivers who see themselves still improving (5 or 8 on a 10-point scale).&nbsp; This is an alarming result, for it shows the total lack of objectivity shown by two out of three drivers.&nbsp; Despite their self-confessed aggressiveness, they still insist on seeing themselves as near perfect drivers with almost no room to improve.&nbsp; This same phenomenon can be seen with specific forms of aggressive behaviors.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">For example, if we ask the question, Who does more hostile <span style="color:#FF8040">chasing</span> with the car, those who assess themselves as near perfect, or those who assess themselves as plenty room to improve? &nbsp; Look at the answer in the statistics for <span style="color:#FF8040">CHASING</span> in relation to self-rated <span style="color:#FF8040">Excellence</span>:</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><img id="_x0000_i1055" src="surveys/Macintosh%20HD:leon:drdriving%20lunar:surveys:../images/chasing35.jpg" alt="pe4.jpg (14401 bytes)" align="center&quot;&quot;463" border="0" height="385" width="465"></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">As you can see, the phenomenon is even more marked here:&nbsp; those who see themselves as near perfect drivers (9 or 10 on a 10-point scale), admit to <span style="color: blue">twice</span> as much chasing of another car compared to those (5 or 8 on a 10-point scale) who see themselves as less perfect (15% vs. 8%).&nbsp; <span style="color:blue">The fact is clear:&nbsp; part of being an aggressive driver is to deny that you're aggressive!</span></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">This conclusion may be evidenced by this<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; the</span> correlation between aggressiveness scores and excellence scores is .13, not significant.&nbsp; In other words, there is no relation between drivers seeing themselves as aggressive and seeing themselves as excellent.&nbsp; This amazing discovery is clearly shown further in this bi-variate plot shwoing the lack of relationship between the debree of self-rated <span style="color:#FF8040">Aggressiveness</span> and the degree of self-rated <span style="color:#FF8000">Excellence</span> as a Driver:</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><img id="_x0000_i1056" src="surveys/Macintosh%20HD:leon:drdriving%20lunar:surveys:../images/excellenceXaggrPlot.jpg" alt="pe2.jpg (16099 bytes)&quot;&quot;357" border="0" height="279" width="359"></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Note that drivers who see themselves as perfect (top 2 rows) vary with each other on whether they also see themselves as aggressive.&nbsp; If you think of yourself as an excellent driver, you can also think of yourself as either an aggressive driver or not.&nbsp; There is no relationship.&nbsp; To me, this is astounding because it demonstrates people's denial that aggressive driving is bad driving!&nbsp; And what is it that we're talking about as aggressive driving?&nbsp; Look at the other items on the survey:&nbsp; tailgating, yelling and honking at other drivers, speeding, running red lights, having fantasies of violence, illegal turns, lane hopping, and so on.&nbsp; So we're not talking about nothing or some mental attitude alone.&nbsp; These drivers do not see a connection, so they say, between these bad driving behaviors they confess they do, and how excellent a driver they can claim to be (and still be believable??).</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Clearly, we're going to need more than aggressive driving legislation and <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/police.html">aggressive law enforcement initiatives</a> to fight aggressive driving that kills thousands a year, injures millions, and costs billions.&nbsp; This does not take into account the human pain and suffering to victims and families, the recovery efforts needed for a long time, and perhaps most importantly, the moral degradation of highway hostility and warfare.&nbsp; As a nation we pay a toll for turning on one another on highways and parking lots and shopping malls and surfing lanes.&nbsp; We give away our civility and give in to hostility.&nbsp; We feel disconnected from one another to the point of wanting to degrade, insult, and injure one another in hatred and vengeance (1,200 recorded death duels last year between drivers on highways).</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The first step in any self-retraining effort is to <span style="color:#FF8040">acknowledge</span> our problem, our inadequate performance. &nbsp; This acknowledgment creates the motivation to change.&nbsp; No change is possible without motivation.&nbsp; No such motivation to change exists without the acknowledgment that improvement is called for.&nbsp; This is where more education can bring about greater understanding and awareness of the aggressive driving problem.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Aggressive driving, in my opinion, is a <span style="color:#FF8040">behavioral addiction</span>.&nbsp; It will behave like an addiction. &nbsp; We want to do it more and more, and, we feel incapable of stopping ourselves when we try.&nbsp; This is what aggressive driving is like.&nbsp; Before we make the acknowledgment step, we are incapable of driving in a supportive way except when there is a threatening authority present (cop car, driving inspector, insurance agent, rich grandmother or benefactor).&nbsp; But when we feel free, we drive according to the addictive habit--aggressively pushing our progress forward, tailgating, lane hopping, speeding, jerking the car around, driving though red, rolling down the window and screaming, cutting off to make our hurt ego feel better, and many other insanities that cost lives, money, and unitedness as a nation.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="mailto:letters@DrDriving.org">E-mail DrDriving</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="swearing"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 20:&nbsp; Swearing, cussing, and </span></strong></a><span class="GramE"><span style="mso-bookmark:swearing"><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;color:#800040;font-weight:normal">name calling</span></strong></span></span><span style="mso-bookmark:swearing"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="swearing20Xstates.jpg">SWEARING--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="swearing20Xage.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SWEARING--by Age</span></strong></a></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="swearing20Xgender.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SWEARING--by Gender</span></strong></a></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="swearing20Xtype.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SWEARING--by Type of Car</span></strong></a></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="swearing20XtypeXgender.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal">SWEARING--by Type of Car and Gender</span></strong></a></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="swearing20XtypeXage.jpg"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SWEARING--by Type of Car and Age</span></strong></a></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Swearing at other drivers is a serious offense in England for which you can go to jail for 2 years, and more and more State Legislatures are passing similar laws--<a href="http://www.drdriving.org/police.html">see my review here.</a>&nbsp; Why do people swear? &nbsp; The respondents in this sample gave hundreds of different explanations when asked to comment on why drivers get angry <span class="GramE">with</span> each other.&nbsp; You can see many of them <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/anger1.html">here</a>.&nbsp; But people's reasons why they get angry may not be accurate.&nbsp; The fact is people are not good at understanding why they get angry. &nbsp; You may check out the anger theory I describe in my congressional testimony <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/testimony.html">here</a>.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">What about women drivers?&nbsp; Is there a norm of hostility for both genders?&nbsp; The <a href="swearing20Xgender.jpg">surprising result can be seen here</a>. &nbsp; What's this?&nbsp; Women out-swear and out-cuss drivers behind the wheel? &nbsp; Yes, indeed:&nbsp; 65% vs. 58% (a highly significant difference statistically). To me this indicates that the <span class="GramE">driver&nbsp; aggressiveness</span> norm is now growing among women, though not in the same areas as it is growing for men.&nbsp; Of course, this is what you would expect if driving <span class="GramE">is</span> a cultural norm since norms vary for men and women in our society on many behavioral items.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">But there are specific differences from State to State.&nbsp; <span style="color:#EA9173">Women drivers in Florida</span> swear and cuss and call names more often (85%) than men or women in the other States.&nbsp; Why?&nbsp; In general men drivers do more yelling and cussing than women, but not everywhere.&nbsp; In <span style="color:#EA9173">Michigan</span> only 40% of the men drivers claim to swear and cuss and insult other drivers, while 55% of Michigan women drivers do so.&nbsp; The State of Ohio also shows a reversal, where women drivers claim they yell more than men (55% vs. 40%).</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">There are large differences in driver swearing behavior when you compare <a href="swearing20Xage.jpg">age groups</a>.&nbsp; Young drivers (15 to 24) swear the most (66% do it), but as they get older (25 to 54), they tend to reduce somewhat (60%), and finally, when they enter the senior category of driver (55 to 94 -- in this sample), they greatly reduce their swearing (42%).&nbsp; Still, these data show that swearing is a cultural driving norm related to age, and a strong one.&nbsp; Six out of ten young drivers swear and cuss at other drivers, and 4 out of 10 senior drivers do so. &nbsp; Obviously, we need to examine this lack of civility between drivers--see this interesting <a href="http://www.seattletimes.com/extra/browse/html97/altmalk_072297.html">article in the Seattle Times relating aggressive driving to Washington's Rules of Civility</a>.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">What about swearing/cussing and type of car one drives?&nbsp; As you <a href="swearing20Xtype.jpg">can see here</a> the answer is <span class="GramE">Yes</span> indeed.&nbsp; By their own admission, drivers of sports cars and light trucks (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.) swear the most (67% or two out of three drivers).&nbsp; Drivers of economy cars and vans swear the least (about 52% or one out of two).&nbsp; Yes, we are a nation of highway swearing and cussing at one another.&nbsp; It might be dubbed the Dangerfield Phenomenon since comedian Rodney Dangerfield is known for saying that there "ain't <span class="GramE">no</span> respect anymore."&nbsp; This is now true for the highway community, or lack of it.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <div align="center"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table9" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#FFEADF;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">DrDriving:&nbsp; Drivers who own SUV's are risk takers and would want to live the fast life. Owning a SUV is a lot of money; insurance wise. By owning a SUV, the driver knows the power of the vehicle on the <span class="GramE">road which</span> is one of the main reasons they purchased a SUV. I think everyone wants or would want a SUV because of the way society classifies SUV as powerful and dominating vehicle. Friends of mine who own SUV's are much more aggressive on the road as compared to drivers who are behind the wheel of a family vehicle. I think that we as a society classify and define vehicles to the extent that we make a difference to peoples' decision on how to drive on the road.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.seattle-pi.com/dayart/030399/cartoon030399.gif">SUV vs. a Miata Cartoon here</a></span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Let's look at this from another angle:&nbsp; Do women drivers of certain types of cars swear and cuss more than some others?&nbsp; As you <a href="swearing20XtypeXgender.jpg">can see here</a>, The answer is that women swear and cuss more than men no matter what car they drive--with one exception:&nbsp; women who drive vans swear and cuss less than other women or men (33%), but this may not be a stable result since there were only 18 women in this sub-group.&nbsp; So the answer remains<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; women</span> swear and cuss at other drivers more than men regardless of the type of car they drive.&nbsp; Men on the other hand vary in their swearing<span class="GramE">,</span> depending on the type of car they drive.&nbsp; Men in their sports cars, SUVs, and light trucks swear more (60% plus) than men who drive economy and family cars (about 50% of them swear).</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">What about a relation between type of car and age, in relation to swearing?&nbsp; <a href="swearing20XtypeXage.jpg">Here you can see</a> that senior drivers of SUVs swear and cuss as much as young drivers of SUVs.&nbsp; Young female drivers of sports cars swear the most (79%), more than all males and females.&nbsp; Senior drivers swear the least, but those who drive light trucks (60%) and SUVs (80%) swear a lot more.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:olive;font-weight:normal">Clearly, cultural factors like age, gender, geographic State, and type of car driven all influence the amount of incivility on the road today.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="speeding"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 22:&nbsp; Breaking the Speed Limit by 15 to 25 mph</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:speeding"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="speeding22Xstates.jpg">SPEEDING--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="speeding22Xage.jpg">SPEEDING--by Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="speeding22Xgender.jpg">SPEEDING--by Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="speeding22Xtype.jpg">SPEEDING--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="speeding22XtypeXgender.jpg">SPEEDING--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="speeding22XtypeXage.jpg">SPEEDING--by Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Speeding is a highly controversial issue, with citizen activism on both sides, those who support an increase in law enforcement activities against speeding such as <a href="http://www.aggressivedriving.org/%22%29">CASAD</a>, and those who oppose it because they don't believe that speeding causes accidents, but rather those who go too slow (see for instance the <a href="http://www.Nashville.Net/speedtrap/">Speedtrap Registry</a>).&nbsp; The overall level of speeding, as perceived by the drivers themselves, is massive.&nbsp; Half of the drivers admit to speeding regularly, and this may be an underestimation.&nbsp; And yet because speeding is a cultural norm, the extent of speeding varies with demographic differences.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The basic cultural facts about speeding are clear when you look at <a href="speeding22Xage.jpg">age differences</a><span class="GramE">,&nbsp; </span><a href="speeding22Xgender.jpg">gender differences</a>, and <a href="speeding22Xstates.jpg">across various states</a>, according to the drivers' own admissions.&nbsp; We start out speeding as young drivers (52% own up to it), then more and more of us reduce that behavior:&nbsp; modestly at first (41% for drivers aged 25 to 54), then quite substantially:&nbsp; 19% for the senior group (55+). &nbsp; Note that even at the senior driver level, 1 in 5 still wants to break the speed limit up to 25 mph above the legal level!&nbsp; This is going to be a very difficult problem to solve in our highway society.&nbsp; Women drivers overall speed less than men overall (41% to 46%).&nbsp; While this is statistically significant the rates are clearly high for both.&nbsp; Differences across selected States vary tremendously.&nbsp; The leading States in serious speeding are Colorado (66% or two out every three drivers there), <span style="color:#FF8080">Georgia</span> (54% or one in two admit to regular speeding), <span style="color:#FF8080">Pennsylvania</span> (51%) and <span style="color:#FF8080">Texas</span> (47%). &nbsp; States with the least self-reported speeding are California<span style="color:#FF8080">, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Ohio</span>--all with self-reported speeding ranging from 30% to 40%.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">It would be interesting to compare speeding data from law enforcement in these states and self-reported speeding--these being two different sets of data.&nbsp; I predict that they will be highly correlated.</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">By State, those who speed the most according to their own admission, <span class="GramE">are</span> <span style="color:#EA9173">Colorado drivers</span>, both male and female (each over 60%), and <span style="color:#EA9173">female drivers in Georgia</span> (65%).&nbsp; Women drivers in Michigan and in California report the lowest incidence of serious speeding (around 20%).</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Now look at the figures on speeding when <a href="speeding22Xtype.jpg">arranged by type of car</a>.&nbsp; Who are the greatest speeders of all?&nbsp; Male drivers of sports cars (60%) outspeed everyone else, followed by male truck drivers (45%) and SUV drivers, both male and female equally (also about 45%).&nbsp; Who are the least of the speeders?&nbsp; <span class="GramE">Drivers of vans, both males (30%) and females (10%).</span>&nbsp; The latter are the lowest!</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Note that it's not the car by itself that determines the tendency to speed, but how the car is perceived, or who is attracted to that kind of car.&nbsp; Among sports car drivers, the majority of males do some serious speeding (60%), but when these cars are driven by women, it does not lead them to speed more than women drivers of other cars.&nbsp; You can see the details in the Tables.&nbsp; The fact that speeding is also a cultural norm comes as no surprise.&nbsp; While TV commercials for cars do not directly encourage speeding, they do so indirectly--see <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/dbb.html">the evidence my students have gathered here</a>.&nbsp; It's clear that drivers of sports cars and SUVs are more attracted to serious speeding as a group, though it is by no means universal. &nbsp; In fact if 45% of SUV drivers report serious speeding, then it's also correct to <span class="GramE">say that</span> "the majority of SUV drivers do not report heavy speeding." &nbsp; However, speaking relatively, that is, in comparison to other drivers, it is the case that SUV and sports car drivers are highest, significantly, in self-reported speeding.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="not_signaling"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 16:&nbsp; Lane hopping without </span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:not_signaling"></span><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;font-weight:normal">signaling</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="notsignaling16Xstates.jpg">NOT SIGNALING--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="notsignaling16Xage.jpg">NOT SIGNALING--by Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="notsignaling16Xgender.jpg">NOT SIGNALING--by Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="notsignaling16Xtype.jpg">NOT SIGNALING--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="notsignaling16XtypeXgender.jpg">NOT SIGNALING--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="notsignaling16XtypeXage.jpg">NOT SIGNALING--by Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Lane hopping without signaling is both dangerous and aggressive.&nbsp; It's a bad habit that indicates the driver's willingness to take risks at the expense of others.&nbsp; It adds both hostility and stress to the highway environment.&nbsp; The self-confessed <span class="GramE">leaders of lane hoppers among the select States is</span> <span style="color:#EA9173">Texas</span> with 40%.&nbsp; Almost every other driver in Texas doesn't bother to signal lane changes on a regular basis.&nbsp; The least guilty on this dangerous practice are the drivers in <span style="color:#EA9173">Georgia</span> (22%) and <span style="color:#EA9173">Ohio</span> (24%).&nbsp; <span class="GramE">The other States fall in between, for instance <span style="color:#EA9173">California</span> at 32%.</span>&nbsp; Note that these percentages are probably underestimating the actual occurrence of this aggressive driving habit since I discovered in my research that many drivers are unaware of their driving errors.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Gender differences in lane hopping without signaling are non-existent apparently, both reporting themselves at the rate of 28%, or about one in four drivers--who admit doing it regularly.&nbsp; Age differences are much more dramatic with significant substantial differences:&nbsp; the young drivers 15 to 24 report themselves at 36% or one in three; the middle age group (25 to 54) report themselves as 23% or one in four; and the senior group (55-94) considerably lower at 13%.&nbsp; As you can see from the results of this sample in relation to all the items, the senior drivers consistently come out as least aggressive and committing the least amount of driving infractions.&nbsp; Thus, age makes us wise!!</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Now let's look at the differences in illegal lane hoping across the drivers of different types of vehicles.&nbsp; As you can see, the most aggressive drivers are, consistently, the drivers of sports cars, SUVs, and light trucks (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.) (<span class="GramE">about</span> 34% each or one in three of them).&nbsp; The other drivers are significantly lower:&nbsp; for vans (17%) and economy cars (26%).&nbsp; In general, one in three drivers admit to illegal and dangerous lane hopping on a regular basis.&nbsp; No wonder we have a high rate of smashing into one another on streets and highways--about <span class="GramE">5 million last year</span> (for more similar facts, <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/facts.html">see my collection here</a>).</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Now we look at interaction effects: are differences between men and women who drive the same type of car?&nbsp; As you can see, there are complex statistical relations reflecting cultural differences between men and women and how they relate to cars, roads, and driving.&nbsp; While you can explore these relations for yourself, I would summarize the results this way:&nbsp; In the "<span style="color:maroon">tough</span>" category of cars--<span style="color:#EA9173">Sports</span>, <span style="color:#EA9173">SUVs</span>, <span style="color:#EA9173">light trucks (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.)</span>--<span class="GramE">both</span> men and women confess to high rates of lane changes without signaling though it is required by law (about 35% or one in three drivers of these vehicles).&nbsp; In the "<span style="color:maroon">soft</span>" category of cars--<span style="color:#EA9173">Economy</span>, <span style="color:#EA9173">Family</span>, <span class="GramE"><span style="color:#EA9173">Luxury</span></span>--men and women are also comparable at around 25% or one in four drivers.&nbsp; In the "<span style="color:maroon">special</span>" category of cars--<span style="color:#EA9173">Vans</span> in this survey--the men drivers report the lowest rate of swearing (10%).</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Do drivers of different age groups vary in their lane hopping behavior, depending on the type of car they drive?&nbsp; The answer is Yes, as usual:&nbsp; Regardless of the type of car they drive, young people outdo older people in illegal lane switching. &nbsp; There is a high cost for this recklessness since crash fatalities are one of the main causes of death for this age group.&nbsp; The tragedy of it is compounded by the fact that our culture raises these youngsters by providing them with an ideology of driving aggressiveness and hostility as portrayed in the public media--<a href="http://www.drdriving.org/dbb.html">see my report here</a>.&nbsp; The good news is that cultural habits can be retrained by a new cultural focus as I argue in my congressional testimony, namely, <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/testimony.html">Lifelong Driver's Ed from K through 12</a> and after that, <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/qdc.html">Quality Driving Circles</a> or QDCs that are neighborhood-based or related to the workplace.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table10" border="1" cellpadding="0" cols="1" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="background:#FFFFD7;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Opinions by real people...</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"> </span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SUV's Getting Out of Hand</span></strong><a name="selection3"></a></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#FAF5F5;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Re:&nbsp; Car owners should file a class action lawsuit against SUV makers </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">for excessive damaged SUVs caused on cars </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Author: D&lt;@nopspam.com&gt; </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Date: 1999/03/05 </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Forum:&nbsp; rec.autos.makers.ford </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Recently the goverment NHTSA released video tapes show extensive damages </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">caused by SUVs on car in collisons. Because SUVs are biger than cars, </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">most of SUV drivers are reckless, irresponsible, and bully on the </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">highway. Driving an SUV by an agressive driver is equivalent to carrying </span></strong><br> <span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">a</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> AK 47 assaut rifle or a bazoka on the street. There are <span class="GramE">a significant <br> increases</span> in death and excessive damages caused by the increase of SUVs </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">on the streets and highway. SUV makers knew the danger and the damages </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">caused by collisions with SUVs but they ignored the facts and are </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">selling more and bigger SUVs for the bucks. </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The City of Chicago is sueing gun manufacturers for the gun crimes in </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Chicago. Many States have sued the Tobacco industry for the sales of </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">cigarettes. </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">It is time for victims of traffic death and exessive damages caused by </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SUVs to file a <span class="GramE">law suit</span> against SUV makers for their irresponsible sales </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">of SUVs and for unsafe automobile on the streets. Let's start a class </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">action suit. </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">Author: Ho &lt;ho@primenet.com&gt;</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">Date: 1999/03/05</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">Forum: rec.autos.makers.ford</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">Not another one...ugh.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></p> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099; font-weight:normal">People drive SUVs</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">, <span class="GramE">SUVs don't drive themselves</span>.&nbsp; Take away the SUV and the</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">dangerous driver will just find some other vehicle to use as a "weapon".</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">How about we sue people's parents or the hospital they were born in for</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">bringing these stupid/aggressive/dangerous people into the world in the</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">first place.&nbsp; That's about in line with what you suggest...</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">You're going after the puppet, not the person pulling the strings.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">They'll get another puppet of a different kind.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">An SUV without a driver is not dangerous, right?&nbsp; Touching it while parked</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">or driving by it won't kill/hurt you, will it?&nbsp; So lets see...you put</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">someone behind the wheel and it becomes a weapon yet the driver is not the</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">person at fault.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">I fail to see your logic.&nbsp; Explain?</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#000099;font-weight:normal">-- Hogan Whittall</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Author: t &lt;tj@my-dejanews.com&gt;</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Date: 1999/03/05</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Forum: rec.autos.makers.ford</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">I'm sorry, but this is the biggest load of crap I have heard in a while.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Yes, if a small car hits, or is hit by a bigger vehicle it will sustain more</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">damage.&nbsp; That is basic physics.&nbsp; Get over it.&nbsp; Ever see what happens to a car</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">hit by an <span class="GramE">18 wheeler</span>?&nbsp; <span class="GramE">Its</span> not pretty.&nbsp; How about a bus, or a dump truck, or</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">a street sweeper.&nbsp; Hey, how about a beefy pickup truck?&nbsp; Forget about cars,</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">hitting a tree is a losing battle too, or large boulders, or even Deer or</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Moose.&nbsp; You know what, all of those vehicles are much bigger than a Honda</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Civic, and the Honda will lose the battle in a collision with ANY of them,</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">not just SUV's.&nbsp; Did you ever notice how many <span class="GramE">18 wheelers</span> are on the road?</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Should we file a suit against them, I wouldn't want to be hit by one!&nbsp; Let's</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">get real.&nbsp; To make the gross generalization that SUV drivers are wreckless is</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">an irresponsible statement in itself.&nbsp; I have never been in an accident</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">driving an SUV.</span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">While driving a Toyota Corrolla hatchback, a <span class="GramE">15 foot</span> tall</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">dump truck drove right over my front end (he did not see my little car down</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">there) and he did not even feel it.&nbsp; People walking along the sidewalk had to</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">wave at him to get him to stop and realize he just drove right over the hood</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">of my car.&nbsp; I never considered filing a <span class="GramE">law suit</span> against dump truck</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">manufacturers because they are too big!&nbsp; Sh*t like that happens sometimes.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Drive safely, no matter what car you drive, and everyone will be fine.&nbsp; There</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">will ALWAYS be accidents on the roads and there will always be fatalities.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">That's the way it is. SUV's, and their drivers are not the cause of the</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">problem.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Do you propose that all car manufacturers must make all cars the same size</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">just to protect the little cars?&nbsp; How about separate roads depending on car</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">size? That's a good idea.&nbsp; What about the older cars on the road, like a 1964</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Chrysler Newport?&nbsp; Those cars are big, and solid.&nbsp; You wouldn't want to hit</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">one of those either.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">I wish everyone would stop blaming the fragility of the world on other people.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">I'm sorry, but you will not always be safe in life.&nbsp; Take your own precautions</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">to be safe, don't rely on others to do it all for you!</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#660000;font-weight:normal">Rooster</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">Author:&nbsp; jh &lt;jh@home.com&gt;</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">Date: 1999/03/05</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">Forum: rec.autos.makers.ford</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600; font-weight:normal">i</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">'m glad i just bought a bigger truck.maybe now i can crush your dumb</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">ass when i hit you.why don't you mind your own business.your argument is</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">stupid and does not make any since at all.what is the difference of what</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">car you get&nbsp; hit by?you could be just as dead if i hit you with my</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">mother in-laws bonniville doing 70&nbsp; as with my truck. <span class="GramE">its</span> not the trucks</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">fault its the drivers.same with a car.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">&nbsp; <span class="GramE">so</span> a car can't wreck into a suv and kill somebody?run it off the</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">road?and there is never car to car wrecks that kill is there.their are</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">just plain ass bad drivers out there,they piss me off too and that is</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">the problem.not the vehicles .why are you trying to blame suv's for</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">reckless driving?</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal"> </span></strong></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">&nbsp; <span class="GramE">its</span> dumb ass's like you who try to make a stink over stupid shit that</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">end up making laws that end up hurting everybody and costing everybody</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">more money.let me guess,your pro life,against owning a gun,against fur</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal">and were out picking ford for not being y2k compliant.</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> </span></strong><br> <span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600; font-weight:normal">what</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#006600;font-weight:normal"> some advice,get a hobby</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; display:none;mso-hide:all"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table11" border="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="width:215.0pt;background:ivory;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" width="215"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><strong><span style="font-family:Times;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.drdriving.org/red-blue.html"><span style="font-family:Arial;color:navy">Emotions, Anger, Mastery, Compassion</span></a></span></strong><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="width:273.0pt;background:ivory;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" width="273"> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-weight:normal">Seeing Red, Feeling Blue and other books and articles about emotions</span></strong><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><a name="red"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040;font-weight: normal">Item 18: Driving through red lights</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:red"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <form target="google_window"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="hl3" value="en" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="cof3" value="GALT:#008000;GL:1;DIV:#336699;VLC:663399;AH:center;BGC:FFFFFF;LBGC:336699;ALC:0000FF;LC:0000FF;T:000000;GFNT:0000FF;GIMP:0000FF;FORID:1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="safe3" value="active" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="oe3" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="ie3" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="forid3" value="1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing:1.5pt; background:white;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table47" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:32.0pt"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:32.0pt" nowrap="nowrap" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><a href="http://www.google.com/"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none"><img id="_x0000_i1063" src="http://www.google.com/logos/Logo_25wht.gif" alt="oogle" align="middle" border="0" height="34" width="34"></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:32.0pt" nowrap="nowrap"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="domains3" value="DrDriving.org;www.DrDriving.org" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span> <label for="sbi3" style="display:none"> Enter your search terms </label> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="q3" size="31" maxlength="255" value="" type="text"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="sa3" value="Search" type="submit"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" nowrap="nowrap"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing: 1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table48" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="sitesearch" value="" checked="checked" type="radio"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="color:black"> <label for="ss8" title="Search the Web"> Web</label></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="sitesearch" value="DrDriving.org" type="radio"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="color:black"> <label for="ss9" title="Search DrDriving.org"> DrDriving.org</label></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"><br> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"><br> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="client3" value="pub-7012167060891058" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </form> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="red18Xstates.jpg">DRIVING THROUGH RED--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="red18Xage.jpg">DRIVING THROUGH RED--by Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="red18Xgender.jpg">DRIVING THROUGH RED--by Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="red18Xtype.jpg">DRIVING THROUGH RED--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="red18XtypeXgender.jpg">DRIVING THROUGH RED--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="red18XtypeXage.jpg">DRIVING THROUGH RED--by Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Driving through red lights is type of aggressive driving that has become a huge problem in many cities, according to newspaper accounts in 1988.&nbsp; For example, in Philadelphia one in five drivers on the streets on any day will run red lights creating a daily hazard with hundreds of drivers running red lights all over the <span class="GramE">city.</span>&nbsp; What mayhem!!&nbsp; Let's see if we can get some insight on this alarming phenomenon through comparing the cultural sub-groups in this sample.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Starting with States, you can see that they differ dramatically in the percentage of self-declared red lights runners, ranging from a high of 25% for <span style="color:#FF8040">Colorado</span> drivers and a low of 5% for <span style="color:#FF8040">Ohio</span> drivers.&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Georgia and Florida</span> drivers also shun this awful practice (6%) while <span style="color:#FF8040">Texas</span> drivers are in between at 15%.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">More insight can be gained if we inspect the results to see how the three age groups are responding.&nbsp; What do you see, surprise of surprises?&nbsp; For Young, Middle, and Senior groups the percentages are 16%, 6%, and 2% respectively.&nbsp; By now this is a familiar pattern if you have read what <span class="GramE">precedes</span>.&nbsp; Now a crucial question<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; What</span> about the genders?&nbsp; The answer is as unexpected:&nbsp; the women do more red light running than the men:&nbsp; 12% to 9%.&nbsp; One might say that a 3% difference, even if reliable statistically, may not amount to very much.&nbsp; Well, let's see. &nbsp; A 3% national reduction in crash fatalities over the life career of one generation of drivers, or about 60 years, would mean saving 72,000 lives!!&nbsp; (I used this formula:&nbsp; 40,000 deaths per yearX60yearsX.03=72,000)</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Does type of car have anything to do with driving through red?&nbsp; The answer is a big YES.&nbsp; As I indicated above there is a cultural meaning attached to cars and therefore different type of drivers are attracted to different types of cars. &nbsp; What I have discovered from this survey is that there appears to be three types of vehicles from this cultural perspective:&nbsp; tough, soft, and special.&nbsp; Tough driving is associated with sports cars, SUVs, and light trucks (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.).&nbsp; Soft driving is associated with economy and family cars.&nbsp; Special driving is associated with vans.&nbsp; One category is left over:&nbsp; luxury cars--I'm not sure where to place them since their drivers seem to vacillate in terms of aggressive indicators.&nbsp; You can follow up on this issue by comparing luxury car drivers to the others on each of the survey items.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The pattern repeats itself with running red lights:&nbsp; Drivers of sports cars <span class="GramE">and&nbsp; SUV</span> drivers are the most aggressive and risky:&nbsp; about 16%, which is double that of&nbsp; economy and family cars (about 8%).&nbsp; Truck drivers also have a relatively low incidence of self-reported red light running (9%), but drivers of vans, once more, are the safest of all (0%--never running red lights).&nbsp; What about luxury car drivers?&nbsp; 13% is <span class="GramE">their own</span> admission--relatively high.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">We can further insight into this cultural dynamic of running red lights by looking at the interaction between type of car and gender or age.&nbsp; For gender, you can see that it makes a big difference what type of car is driven.&nbsp; Women who drive luxury cars and SUVs report twice as much red light running as the men who drive those cars:&nbsp; 21% vs. 11%.&nbsp; This is very strong evidence that <span class="GramE">aggressive&nbsp; behavior</span> for women drivers is related to the type of car they drive.&nbsp; Overall women are less aggressive than men, but not when they drive SUVs and luxury cars.&nbsp; Note also that there is a complicating factor:&nbsp; not all aggressive behaviors go together. &nbsp; There is a tendency for them to be a syndrome, as I explained above, but there is lots of wiggle room, so that large proportions of the population don't fit any one particular pattern of aggressive behavior.&nbsp; In the case <span class="GramE">of&nbsp; red</span> light running, it is clear that women report this problem more frequently than men, and the gap gets bigger with "tough" cars like SUVs and sports cars.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="tailgating"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 27:&nbsp; Tailgating Dangerously</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:tailgating"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="tailgating27Xstates.jpg">TAILGATING DANGEROUSLY--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="tailgating27Xage.jpg">TAILGATING DANGEROUSLY--by Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="tailgating27Xgender.jpg">TAILGATING DANGEROUSLY--by Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="tailgating27Xtype.jpg">TAILGATING DANGEROUSLY--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="tailgating27XtypeXgender.jpg">TAILGATING DANGEROUSLY--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="tailgating27XtypeXage.jpg">TAILGATING DANGEROUSLY--by Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The results for the 10 states in this sample for which I had enough respondents to make statistical comparisons, show the worst five States with a mean of 21% dangerous tailgating:&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Colorado (25%), Georgia (20%), Pennsylvania (20%), Michigan (19%), Texas (19%).&nbsp;</span> The lowest tailgating States are:&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Illinois (8%), New York (10%), Florida (14%), Ohio (15%), <span class="GramE">California</span> (18%).</span></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">There are as you might expect, age differences as well as gender differences. &nbsp; Among <span style="color:#FF8040">young drivers</span><span class="GramE">,&nbsp; 19</span>% admit to tailgating dangerously, which is about one in five.&nbsp; This is more than <span class="GramE"><span style="color:#FF8040">middle aged</span></span><span style="color:#FF8040"> drivers (15%) and senior drivers (6%).</span> &nbsp; This age pattern recurs in many aggressive driving behaviors:&nbsp; as we get older, we drive less aggressively.&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Women</span> admit to <span class="GramE">as much tailgating as <span style="color:#FF8040">men</span> (15%), in general, but once again there are significant influences attributable to the type of car they drive, as show in this table</span>:</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table12" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">TAILGATING</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#ACCAAD;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">family</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">/economy cars</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(error rate=3%)</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#ACCAAD;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">sports</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> cars</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(error rate=5%)</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#ACCAAD;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SUVs</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(error rate=5%)</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="background:#F9A691;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Male drivers</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#F9A691;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">13%</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#F9A691;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">23%</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#F9A691;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">18%</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#989EF1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Female drivers</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#989EF1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">13%</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#989EF1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">20%</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#989EF1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">25%</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">You can see that those drive the "soft" cars (<span style="color:#FF8040">family and economy</span>) tailgate less than those who drive the "hard" cars (<span style="color:#FF8040">sports and SUV</span>) with a ratio of two to one.&nbsp; This holds true for both men and women.&nbsp; However, with SUV drivers we see a reversal between the genders:&nbsp; <span style="color:red">more female SUV drivers tailgate dangerously, by their own admission, than male drivers of SUVs</span>.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Now take a look at the results for type of car and age:</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table13" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">TAILGATING</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#ACCAAD;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">family</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> cars</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(error rate=3%)</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#ACCAAD;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">sports</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> cars</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(error rate=5%)</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#ACCAAD;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SUVs</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(error rate=6%)</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="background:#F9A691;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Young drivers</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(15 to 24)</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#F9A691;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">9%</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#F9A691;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">28%</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#F9A691;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">21%</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#989EF1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Middle aged drivers</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(25 to 54)</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#989EF1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">13%</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#989EF1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">13%</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#989EF1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">23%</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The pattern of results revealed in this Table point to the cultural influences related to car society--parental influence and marketing symbolism.&nbsp; Young drivers of family cars tailgate less than their parental group who drive the same cars (9% vs. 13%).&nbsp; But <span style="color:#FF8040">young drivers <span class="GramE">of&nbsp; sports</span> cars</span> tailgate more than their parental group (28% vs. 13%).&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Young drivers of SUVs</span> tailgate equally with their parental group (21% vs. 23%--not enough to be significantly different or reliable). As you can see for yourself from the Graphs and Tables, the results for economy cars are comparable to the results with <span style="color:#FF8040">family cars</span>, while the results with <span style="color:#FF8040">light trucks</span> (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.) are comparable to the results with sports cars.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">My interpretation of these patterns is that parents of <span style="color:#FF8040">SUVs</span> transmit their dangerous tailgating practices to their children, while parents of sports cars do not.&nbsp; Parents of family cars have a positive influence on their children so that the children tailgate less than the parents.&nbsp; Note however, <span class="GramE">that&nbsp; other</span> interpretations of these results are possible.&nbsp; The pusize="3le will be clearer when I get to the analysis of the survey dealing with remembered parental behavior behind the wheel.&nbsp; One aspect of aggressive driving is becoming more and more clear from these results:&nbsp; <span style="color:blue">type of car is a major influence on how aggressive the driver gets</span>. &nbsp; If you look at the graphs and tables for Type of Car and Tailgating, you see the familiar pattern:&nbsp; tough driving cars like sports, light trucks, and SUVs elicit dangerous and aggressive tailgating to the tune of one in five drivers (20% and more); soft driving cars like economy and family cars elicit significantly less dangerous tailgating (11% and 16%); special driving cars tend to have their own peculiar pattern with <span style="color:#FF8040">vans</span> always low on aggressiveness (6% for tailgating) and <span style="color:#FF8040">luxury cars</span> in between tough and soft (13%). &nbsp; These patterns recur with many aggressive driving items, thus pointing to a cultural syndrome, norm, or habit.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial"><a href="..:travel:songs.htm">Songs About Cars</a></span></b><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="fantasies"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 40:&nbsp; Enjoying fantasies of violence</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:fantasies"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="fantasies40Xstates.jpg">ENJOYING FANTASIES OF VIOLENCE--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="fantasies40Xage.jpg">ENJOYING FANTASIES OF VIOLENCE--by Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="fantasies40Xgender.jpg">ENJOYING FANTASIES OF VIOLENCE--by Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="fantasies40Xtype.jpg">ENJOYING FANTASIES OF VIOLENCE--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="fantasies40XtypeXgender.jpg">ENJOYING FANTASIES OF VIOLENCE--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="fantasies40XtypeXage.jpg">ENJOYING FANTASIES OF VIOLENCE--by Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="fantasies40Xmodel.jpg">ENJOYING FANTASIES OF VIOLENCE--by Model of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Beginning our inquiry of Enjoying Fantasies of Violence with States, you can see that the differences are small yet noticeable.&nbsp; Less frequent reports by drivers in <span style="color:#FF8040">Florida, New York, and Pennsylvania</span> (ranging 2.1 to 2.5 on the 10-point scale), and more frequent occurrences by drivers in <span style="color:#FF8040">Ohio, Texas, and Colorado</span> (ranging from 3.3 to 3.0).&nbsp; Why should people enjoy fantasies of violence?? &nbsp; Note that this is different from "having" fantasies of violence--which is a natural occurrence in situations where we're competing strenuously with others. &nbsp; But this item has to do with "enjoying" these fantasies.&nbsp; I think that this aspect goes beyond having the fantasies, and carrying them one dangerous step further.&nbsp; The healthy thing to do when you have fantasies of violence against other drivers is to immediately stop them dead in their track, or else they may stop you dead! &nbsp; If drivers don't oppose these fantasies, they are putting themselves at risk for "losing it" as they say, that is, getting into a <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/intro.html">road rage incident</a>.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Let's explore this sensitive and personal aspect of aggressive driving.&nbsp; If you look at the graphs and tables for age differences, you find a significant difference between the three groups:&nbsp; Young (3.1), Middle aged (2.7), and Senior (2.5).&nbsp; As drivers get older, they reduce this trait more and more.&nbsp; The big drop occurs as we move out of the teenage and young adult stage and settle into middle age.&nbsp; <span class="GramE">then</span> another drop as age brings us further wisdom as seniors.&nbsp; Nevertheless, even in this calmer stage of individual development, our senior <span class="GramE">years as drivers still involves</span> this mental pathology--the enjoyment of disfiguring or mutilating or physically torturing other drivers.&nbsp; I was one of the first traffic <span class="GramE">psychologist</span> to detect this phenomenon and bring it to the attention of the public--see my 1987 <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/violence.html">article on violence and mental health</a>.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Since virtually all people in this country are affiliated to the three main religions of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, it is remarkable that so many drivers tolerate themselves to enjoy violent fantasies behind the wheel.&nbsp; Of course we need more research that involves self-witnessing behind the wheel while the aggressive behavior occurs, rather than later relying on one's memory, as was done in this survey.&nbsp; For years I have carried a tape recorder in my car speaking my thoughts out loud and <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/ch11.html">later analyzing the tape</a>.&nbsp; Many of my <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/topics.html">students have as well</a>.&nbsp; It's remarkable what you get to find out about yourself!!&nbsp; I recommend this technique in my <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/threestep.html">Threestep Program</a> for self-modification as a driver.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Gender differences are significant and huge:&nbsp; 2.1 for women drivers vs. 3.6 for men.&nbsp; While women behind the wheel occasionally enjoy fantasies of violence, the men do it with a vengeance!!&nbsp; This is alarming to me.&nbsp; In 1987 I predicted that violence by drivers <span class="GramE">will</span> increase unless we give them the skills to manage their anger behind the wheel.&nbsp; Road rage is on the increase--everyone knows it by now in January of 1999.&nbsp; <span class="GramE">Aggressive driving laws are being passed by more and more legislators</span> (<a href="http://www.drdriving.org/police.html">see my review here</a>).&nbsp; But in <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/testimony.html">my congressional testimony</a> last year, I argue that while effective law enforcement is a must, it cannot answer the basic problem, only re-training<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; driver's</span> ed K through 12 and after that QDCs (<a href="http://www.drdriving.org/qdc.html">Quality Driving Circles</a>).</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">We also need more parental involvement in a positive way.&nbsp; Currently the parental influence on children is negative.&nbsp; We expose our children to years of aggressive driving attitudes as they ride in our cars.&nbsp; Then, as they get behind the wheel, they act like their parents, or worse.&nbsp; We start our driver education as infants riding in cars.&nbsp; We pick up attitudes and feelings and orientations--all non-verbally, by osmosis.&nbsp; Later, we do it verbally as well.&nbsp; We imitate and practice these attitudes on streets, in parking lots, in shopping centers.&nbsp; So we need to teach children about civility, human rights, and compassion in public places where we share space.&nbsp; Attitudes towards others' rights and respect for authority should be taught in elementary school (this is called Affective Driver Ed).&nbsp; Then in intermediate school, children should be taught how to reason about traffic and pedestrian behavior and events (this is called Cognitive Driver Ed).&nbsp; Finally in high school, teenagers would get hands on driving instruction (this is called sensorimotor Driver Ed).&nbsp; Beyond that, each individual would be enrolled in a QDC of their choice<span class="GramE">, either</span> neighborhood, church, or workplace.&nbsp; This plan would take care of Lifelong Driver Ed and would transform our killing highways into a highway community in one generation.&nbsp; I have written a video course that focuses on <span class="GramE">the this</span> social responsibility of drivers--<a href="http://www.drdriving.org/video/">available here</a>.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <form target="google_window"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="hl4" value="en" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="cof4" value="GALT:#008000;GL:1;DIV:#336699;VLC:663399;AH:center;BGC:FFFFFF;LBGC:336699;ALC:0000FF;LC:0000FF;T:000000;GFNT:0000FF;GIMP:0000FF;FORID:1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input 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style="margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:11.25pt;margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:11.25pt"><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#804040"><a href="http://www.drdriving.org/drivingpsy.html"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#8080FF;font-weight:normal">Socio-Cultural Methods of</span></strong><span style="color:#8080FF"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Managing Driving Behavior in a Society</span></strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:11.25pt;margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:11.25pt"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:brown; font-weight:normal">Driving Psychology is a new field of knowledge that brings together all that we need to know to manage the driving behavior of millions<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; transportation</span>, safety, psychology, education, communication, testing, civic activism, law enforcement and legislation.</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Now, getting back to enjoying fantasies of violence, <span class="GramE">it&nbsp; would</span> be very telling if drivers of some type of cars enjoyed violent fantasies more than drivers of other cars.&nbsp; Let's look at the graphs and tables.&nbsp; Yes, indeed, there is a highly significant difference between types of cars and how often their drivers enjoy violent fantasies about other drivers.&nbsp; In the low category (2.3 on the 10-point scale) we have <span style="color:#FF8040">vans and family cars</span>.&nbsp; In the mid category we have <span style="color:#FF8040">SUVs, luxury cars, and economy cars</span> (2.7 to 3.0).&nbsp; In the heavy violence category we have <span style="color:#FF8040">sports cars and light trucks</span> (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.) <span class="GramE">(3.5 and 3.7).</span></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">There is a dramatic interaction effect between <span style="color:#FF8040">type of car and gender</span> in relation to enjoying <span style="color:#FF8000">fantasies of violence</span>, as you can see in the associated graphs and tables. &nbsp; I can summarize it in this table:</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table15" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td colspan="3" style="background:#BCE6A4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#400040;font-weight:normal">TYPE OF CAR and GENDER in relation to</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial;color:#400040"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">ENJOYING VIOLENT FANTASIES</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="background:#BCE6A4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Type of Car</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#F1A085;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Male drivers</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#B7ACF0;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Female drivers</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2"> <td style="background:#BCE6A4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">family</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#F1A085;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">2.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#9485E9;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">1.9</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:3"> <td style="background:#BCE6A4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">vans</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#F1A085;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">2.8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#9485E9;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">1.8</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:4"> <td style="background:#BCE6A4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">luxury</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#F1A085;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">3.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#9485E9;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">2.8</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:5"> <td style="background:#BCE6A4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">light</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> trucks</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#F1A085;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">3.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#9485E9;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">2.8</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:6"> <td style="background:#BCE6A4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">economy</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#F1A085;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">4.0</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#9485E9;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">2.1</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:7;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#BCE6A4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">sports</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#F1A085;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">4.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#9485E9;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">2.5</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">You can easily the pattern:&nbsp; male drivers continue to increase their enjoyment of violent fantasies as they switch type of cars from family to sports, while women drivers do the same thing but at a lower pace.&nbsp; I was able to look into this further, by contrasting drivers of different Models, since type of car as well as model have symbolic significance and may attract different cultural elements of car society.&nbsp; I was able to find 7 models of cars for which I had a statistically reliable sample, more or less. &nbsp; Let's consider these results tentative as predictive of what might happen in future samples.&nbsp; Look at the this table copied from the <a href="fantasies40Xmodel.jpg">main graphs and tables for model and fantasies</a>:</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><img id="_x0000_i1083" src="surveys/Macintosh%20HD:leon:drdriving%20lunar:surveys:../images/fantasies40XmodelT.jpg" alt="pe1.jpg (12462 bytes)&quot;&quot;318" border="0" height="201" width="320"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">There are significant and substantial differences in these sub-groups, despite their small size.&nbsp; Sure enough, drivers of <span style="color:#FF8040">S-10</span> (Chevrolet Truck/Utility) go for this pathological enjoyment double and triple of the other drivers!&nbsp; If you look <span class="GramE">at&nbsp; gender</span> differences within each of these models, fewer women enjoy violent fantasies than the men who drive these models, with one big exception:&nbsp; drivers of S-10--the women enjoy violent fantasies more than the men who drive these <span style="color:#FF8040">light trucks</span> (S-10, Pick-up, Ram, Ranger, F-150, Silverado, Dakota, etc.).&nbsp; But remember:&nbsp; these are only trends or hypotheses as the samples were too small.&nbsp; Let's wait for future samples on this one.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table16" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#FAFFF4;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-weight:normal">Dec. 16, 2000</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"> </span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="text-align:center" align="center"><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;color:red">Pickup truck rollovers continue despite safety upgrades</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">At a glance:</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">Fatal crash statistics show the combined death rate for 2-wheel-drive and 4-wheel-drive pickups was higher than any other vehicle on America's roads in 1999. The following numbers show how many people were <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red">killed per 1 million passenger vehicles</span></strong>: </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">138 people were killed in cars. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">177 people were killed in 2-wheel-drive pickups and 152 were killed in 4-wheel-drive pickups. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">184 were killed in 2-wheel-drive sport utility vehicles and 122 were killed in 4-wheel-drive sport utilities. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">Source: The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in Arlington, Va. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">By Tony Manolatos FLORIDA TODAY </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">They are built tough, which is why millions of people love pickup trucks. The vehicles seem to blend in anywhere - in the backwater or at the opera - which has meant happy motorists and even happier automakers. </span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial">But there is a grim downside</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial">. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">Even though pickups hold up better than cars in multi-vehicle crashes, the death rate in pickups is higher than any other passenger vehicle on America's roads, and rollover crashes continue to be a problem despite safety upgrades, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety in Arlington, Va., a nonprofit agency funded by automobile insurance companies to encourage safety. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">After pickups, sport utility vehicles are involved in the most deaths nationwide. Both are involved in high amounts of single-vehicle rollover deaths. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">Single-vehicle rollover crashes accounted for 51 percent of occupant deaths in sport utilities, compared with 36 percent of deaths in pickups and 19 percent of deaths in cars in 1999. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">Pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles are part of the growing problems on Interstate 95 in Florida, according to a Florida Today analysis, published Dec. 3, which examined state crash records from the Florida Highway Patrol. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">(...)</span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">Single out-of-control autos accounted for the most fatal wrecks on I-95 in Florida and in Brevard during the newspaper's analysis. But the fear among safety experts is that pickup drivers, who are responsible for the highest death rate nationwide among all passenger vehicles and continue to increase in number, are potentially more dangerous to themselves and other motorists because they are often young, aggressive drivers. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">"A pickup driver is generally more of a risk taker," said Yoli Buss, director of traffic safety for AAA Auto Club South in Tampa, a not-for-profit automotive safety and service provider. "It's a younger, male driver for the most part, (although) females are not far behind." </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">Younger drivers between the ages of 20 and 24 are involved in the most fatal wrecks on all roads, according to federal government crash statistics. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">"And a large percentage of those are pickup drivers," Buss said Friday. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">Even with fatal crashes occurring frequently, buyers are flocking to pickups in growing numbers with 1 in 5 vehicles sold in the United States being a pickup. </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">(...) </span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">As for the high death rate involving pickups, Pipas said he was "a little confused by the statistics because people who are in pickup trucks generally are safer in accidents involving collision." </span></p> <p><a href="http://www.floridatoday.com/news/local/stories/2000/dec/loc121600d.htm"><span class="GramE"><span style="font-family:Arial">original</span></span><span style="font-family:Arial"> here</span></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><a name="compassion"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 42:&nbsp; Feeling compassion for another driver</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:compassion"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="compassion42Xstates.jpg">FEELING COMPASSION--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="compassion42XageXgender.jpg">FEELING COMPASSION--by Age and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="compassion42Xtype.jpg">FEELING COMPASSION--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="compassion42XtypeXgender.jpg">FEELING COMPASSION--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="compassion42XtypeXage.jpg">FEELING COMPASSION--by Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">There is a significant difference between the 10 sample states.&nbsp; Drivers feeling compassion more regularly are in <span style="color:#FF8040">Colorado (6.0), Texas (5.5), Georgia (5.4), California (5.3), and Florida (5.3).</span> &nbsp;&nbsp; Drivers feeling compassion less frequently are in <span style="color:#FF8040">Pennsylvania (4.8), Ohio (4.8), New York (4.7), Illinois (4.6), and Michigan (4.2).</span>&nbsp; Congratulations drivers in Colorado!&nbsp; But I must remind us that Colorado drivers admit to more dangerous tailgating than any other State--so the accolade is mixed.&nbsp; You will note this in other places of my analysis. &nbsp; There is no way of picking one State and saying, <span class="GramE">You</span>'re the Worst on Everything. &nbsp; Drivers in each State pick their own pattern--what aggressive behaviors to emphasize in relation to some other place.&nbsp; This is another way of saying that aggressive driving norms vary from place to place, as indeed you would expect when dealing with a cultural practice or habit.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Now let's see how age and gender figure into the picture.&nbsp; Who is feeling the compassion--the young or the old?&nbsp; <span class="GramE">The women or the men?</span>&nbsp; If you click on the tables and graphs I provide, you can see that the <span style="color:#FF8040">women feel compassion more than the men</span>, and that the <span style="color:#004080">older drivers feel more compassion than the young</span>.&nbsp; But there is a complicating factor that is quite revealing when you compare the men and women in the three age groups.&nbsp; The <span style="color:#FF8040">young women</span> drivers are only slightly less compassionate than the older women drivers (5.1 vs. 5.5), while the <span style="color:#FF8040">young men</span> drivers are quite a bit less compassionate than either the women of their age or the men who are older (4.3 for yon men drivers; 5.0 for middle aged men, and 5.6 for senior men).&nbsp; Note that as drivers get older, the men catch up to the women in feeling compassion more regularly:&nbsp; for the young drivers, the difference is large (4.3 <span class="GramE">for&nbsp; men</span> vs. 5.1 for women); for middle aged drivers, the difference between the genders gets smaller (5.0 for the men vs. 5.5 for the women); as they enter the <span style="color:#FF8040">senior category, men are equally compassionate to women</span> (5.6 vs. 5.5 or the same within error). &nbsp; The error rate for this 10-point scale of regularity is about .3 of a scale unit (see the column marked "St. Err." in the tables I provide).</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The graphs for type of car and compassion show a steady picture with most of the types hovering just under 5 on a 10-point scale for feeling compassion regularly.&nbsp; Even within these small differences, drivers of <span style="color:#FF8040">vans</span> (5.4) and <span style="color:#FF8040">family</span> cars (5.1) feel compassionate significantly more often than the others, but the difference is small. &nbsp; When you look at the graph for compassion for men and women driving the various types of cars, you see that <span style="color:#FF8040">women drivers feel compassion more often than men no matter what cars they drive</span>.&nbsp; There is one exception:&nbsp; men who drive <span style="color:#FF8040">vans</span> are even more compassionate (5.8) than the women who drive them (4.8).&nbsp; Congratulations men who drive vans!&nbsp; Just one little point I might add as DrDriving:&nbsp; Why not push up the regularity <span class="GramE">of&nbsp; feeling</span> compassionate for other drivers from 5.8 to 9.8 or 10?&nbsp; There is nothing wrong with feeling compassion on every car trip, you know.&nbsp; It reduces stress and restores driving to an act of community shared pleasure, not frustration and mutual hostility. &nbsp; However, we need to learn HOW to feel compassionate on a regular basis, it isn't easy without training ourselves.&nbsp; If you look at the pattern for type of car and age group, you see no particular effect.&nbsp; Feeling compassion seems to depend on your age and gender, not the type of car you drive.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Figure 2. Aggressive Driving Death Rate by State </span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.transact.org/aggressivedriving99/report/one.htm">Original article may be found here</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:2.0pt;border:outset #3CB200 1.0pt; mso-border-alt:outset #3CB200 .75pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184;mso-padding-alt: 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt" id="table17" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Rank</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">State</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Deaths per 100,000 people</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">1996 Aggressive Driving Deaths</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">South Carolina</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">15.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">557</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">2</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Wyoming</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">13.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">67</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:3"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">3</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Alabama</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">13.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">586</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:4"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">4</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Kansas</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">13.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">352</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:5"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">5</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Oklahoma</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">13.6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">448</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:6"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">New Mexico</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">12.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">221</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:7"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">North Carolina</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">12.4</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">909</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:8"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Arkansas</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">12.4</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">311</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:9"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Idaho</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">11.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">141</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:10"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">10</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Florida</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">11.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">1679</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:11"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">11</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Missouri</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">10.8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">581</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:12"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">12</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Mississippi</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">10.5</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">285</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:13"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">13</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Tennessee</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">10.2</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">545</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:14"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">14</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Montana</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">10.2</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">90</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:15"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">15</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Texas</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">1901</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:16"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">16</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Arizona</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">434</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:17"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">17</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Utah</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">195</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:18"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">18</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Nevada</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">156</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:19"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">19</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">North Dakota</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">62</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:20"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">20</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">South Dakota</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">70</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:21"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">21</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Georgia</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.4</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">690</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:22"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">22</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Colorado</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.3</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">354</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:23"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">23</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Kentucky</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">9.0</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">348</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:24"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">24</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Nebraska</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">8.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">143</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:25"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">25</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Vermont</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">8.2</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">48</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:26"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">26</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">California</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">8.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">2582</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:27"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">27</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Michigan</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">7.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">759</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:28"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">28</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Louisiana</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">7.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">344</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:29"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">29</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">West Virginia</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">7.8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">142</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:30"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">30</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Delaware</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">7.6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">55</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:31"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">31</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Indiana</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">7.3</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">424</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:32"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">32</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Ohio</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">7.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">794</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:33"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">33</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Oregon</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">7.0</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">225</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:34"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">34</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Maine</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">6.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">86</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:35"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">35</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Pennsylvania</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">6.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">802</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:36"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">36</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Illinois</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">6.6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">784</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:37"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">37</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Wisconsin</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">6.6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">340</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:38"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">38</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Alaska</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">6.3</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">38</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:39"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">39</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Washington</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">6.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">335</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:40"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">40</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Virginia</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">5.9</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">395</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:41"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">41</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Maryland</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">5.8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">295</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:42"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">42</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Minnesota</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">5.8</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">268</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:43"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">43</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Hawaii</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">5.6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">66</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:44"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">44</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Iowa</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">5.6</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">159</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:45"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">45</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Connecticut</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">4.5</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">146</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:46"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">46</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">New Jersey</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">4.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">330</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:47"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">47</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">New Hampshire</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">4.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">48</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:48"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">48</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">New York</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">3.7</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">671</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:49"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">49</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Massachusetts</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">3.3</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">201</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:50;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">50</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">Rhode Island</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">3.1</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="border:inset #3CB200 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:inset #3CB200 .75pt; background:white;padding:2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt 2.0pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:black;font-weight:normal">31</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; display:none;mso-hide:all"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table18" border="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="width:215.0pt;background:ivory;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" width="215"> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><strong><span style="font-family:Times;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.drdriving.org/red-blue.html"><span style="font-family:Arial;color:navy">Emotions, Anger, Mastery, Compassion</span></a></span></strong><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="width:273.0pt;background:ivory;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" width="273"> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-weight:normal">Seeing Red, Feeling Blue and other books and articles about emotions</span></strong><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <form target="google_window"> <!-- SiteSearch Google --> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;color:#800040;font-weight:normal"><input name="hl" value="en" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="cof" value="GALT:#008000;GL:1;DIV:#336699;VLC:663399;AH:center;BGC:FFFFFF;LBGC:336699;ALC:0000FF;LC:0000FF;T:000000;GFNT:0000FF;GIMP:0000FF;FORID:1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="safe" value="active" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="oe" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="ie" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="forid" value="1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span></span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Times;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi;color:#800040;font-weight:normal"><o:p></o:p></span></strong></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing:1.5pt; 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mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="client" value="pub-7012167060891058" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </form> <p><a name="Pyelling"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 58:&nbsp; Parents yelling at another driver</span></strong></a></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="Pyelling58Xstates.jpg">PARENTS YELLING--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="yelling23Xstates.jpg">THEIR ADULT CHILDREN YELLING TODAY--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="Pyelling58Xage.jpg">PARENTS YELLING--by Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="Pyelling58Xgender.jpg">PARENTS YELLING--by Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="Pyelling58Xtype.jpg">PARENTS YELLING--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="Pyelling58XtypeXgender.jpg">PARENTS YELLING--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="yelling23XtypeXgender.jpg">THEIR ADULT CHILDREN YELLING TODAY--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="Pyelling58XtypeXage.jpg">PARENTS YELLING--by Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Yelling at people is obviously a cultural norm, so it's not surprising that drivers in different States yell at one another each according to their custom.&nbsp; Here we are asking drivers to tell on their parents.&nbsp; In the recollection of these drivers, the big yelling States for parents are <span style="color:#FF8040">Florida (43%), Michigan (42%), and Pennsylvania (39%).</span>&nbsp; These respondents who see their <span class="GramE">parents</span> as big yellers are themselves yellers today:&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Florida (46%), Michigan (36%), and Pennsylvania (53%).</span><span style="color:#400040">&nbsp; </span>As you can see<span style="color:#400040"> from the graph, their adult children today are also big yellers, sometimes more than their parents, as in </span><span style="color:#FF8040">Pennsylvania</span><span style="color:#400040"> (53%) and sometimes a little less, as in </span><span style="color:#FF8040">Florida</span><span style="color:#400040"> (36%).</span></span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The age of the respondent has some influence on how they remember their parents yelling behavior in cars.&nbsp; The <span style="color:#FF8040">younger group</span> (15 to 24) <span class="GramE">are</span> the closest in time to witness their parents actual driving.&nbsp; Of this age group, 33%, or one in three, remember their parents as yelling at other drivers.&nbsp; The <span class="GramE"><span style="color:#FF8040">middle aged</span></span><span style="color:#FF8040"> group</span> (25 to 54) is similar:&nbsp; 30% of them remember their parents yelling at other drivers.&nbsp; The <span style="color:#FF8040">senior group</span> (55 to 94) also recall their parents yelling, though somewhat less<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; 23</span>%.&nbsp; The verdict is in, folks:&nbsp; <span style="color:#800040">we are a nation of yelling drivers, and as parents, we pass this norm on to our children, so when they grow up to be drivers, they too yell at one another</span>.&nbsp; Shouldn't we stop?&nbsp; Last year 1200 people lost their lives in a road rage incident that started with yelling or some similar insulting and provocative behavior.&nbsp; Many more fights occurred that did not result in fatalities. &nbsp; It's time to change this norm.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">More drivers of tough cars like <span style="color:#FF8040">sports cars</span> (35%) and <span style="color:#FF8040">SUVs</span> (32%) describe their parents as yelling regularly at other drivers, in comparison to drivers of soft cars <span style="color:#FF8040">economy cars</span> (28%) and <span style="color:#FF8040">family cars</span> (29%)--as you can see from the graphs.&nbsp; What's remarkable to me is that so many of us describe our parents as aggressively yelling at other drivers<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; one</span> in four or one in three.&nbsp; When we delve deeper into gender and age in relation to type of car, you can see from the graphs I provide that except for sports cars, <span style="color:#FF8040">more women remember their parents as yelling than men remember them, for all types of cars (except sports cars)</span>.&nbsp; Now when you compare this result to the yelling women and men confess to doing on their own, you can see that they tend to follow their parental image:&nbsp; women drivers today report yelling more than men behind the wheel for all types of cars except sports cars and vans. &nbsp; Looking at how age groups remember their parents yelling, we see that the general pattern:&nbsp; for all types of cars, except <span style="color:#FF8000">SUVs</span>, fewer senior drivers remember their parents as having yelled at other drivers than the other age groups.&nbsp; But not senior drivers of SUVs:&nbsp; they remember their parents as yellers.&nbsp; Oops...when I look at the size of the sample...only 5...OK nix that one.&nbsp; Let's just say we'll watch this development carefully as more samples are coming in.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <div align="center"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table19" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:white;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#0080FF;font-weight:normal">Dear DrDriving:&nbsp; I strongly believe that parents must be involved in the total education of their child. That means Reading, wRiting, aRithmatic, and Responsibility. When you take on the responsibility of bringing a child into this world, you also assume the responsibility of raising that child to become a responsible member of society. This includes driving.</span></strong></p> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#0080FF; font-weight:normal">Getting behind the wheel of a car is not a right</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#0080FF;font-weight:normal">, <span class="GramE">it's a privilege</span>. Children must learn that if they do not EARN a privilege, they will not get it. When they abuse it, this privilege will be taken away. Once a child realizes this, and understands the responsibility that comes with driving, <span class="GramE">they</span> are <span class="GramE">no longer a child</span></span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">.</span></strong></p> <div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%"> </span></div> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#804040;font-weight:normal">DrDriving:&nbsp; When I was a teenage driver, I hated when my parents told me what to do while I was driving. I would not listen to a word they say because I was behind the wheel and not them. Everything they would tell me before I would go out with my friends, I would just do the opposite. Educating young teenage drivers is great when you want to start teaching them the basics of safe driving. But, should it start from when they get behind the wheel? Educating drivers should start prior to their age limit of getting their permit. I think that the earlier you start educating future drivers, the earlier they realize the dangers of driving. Parents also should be taught how to approach their child to safe driving. They should also educate themselves because they too are not the perfect drivers themselves</span></strong><strong><span style="font-family: Arial;font-weight:normal">. </span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="cruising"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 29:&nbsp; Cruising in the passing lane</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:cruising"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="cruising29Xstates.jpg">CRUISING IN THE PASSING LANE--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="cruising29Xage.jpg">CRUISING IN THE PASSING LANE--by Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="cruising29Xgender.jpg">CRUISING IN THE PASSING LANE--by Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="cruising29Xtype.jpg">CRUISING IN THE PASSING LANE--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Thousands of people write to me and there is one complaint drivers have about each other that may be the single most important reason they get aggressive and hostile:&nbsp; cruising in the left lane<span class="GramE">,&nbsp; also</span> referred to as blocking the passing lane.&nbsp; Now we are looking at the self-confessed lane blocks by States.</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The <span style="color:#FF8040">young</span> admit to cruising in the passing lane than the <span class="GramE"><span style="color:#FF8040">middle aged</span></span> group (15% vs. 12%).&nbsp; One interesting finding:&nbsp; only 6% of the <span style="color:#FF8040">senior</span> group (55 to 94) <span class="GramE">admit</span> to blocking the passing lane.&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Congratulations, senior drivers</span>!&nbsp; However, lets wait for more results to come in because there were only 47 drivers in that age group in this sample, while the other two age groups had 500 drivers in each.&nbsp; Thus, the error rate for the senior sample is 4% while for the other two groups less than 2%.&nbsp; For the time being, let's consider a trend to be confirmed later.&nbsp; In terms of gender, the <span style="color:#FF8000">women drivers</span> see themselves less guilty of blocking the passing lane than men do:&nbsp; 11% vs. 14%. &nbsp; This is a statistically significant difference since the error rate is less than 2%.&nbsp; Once again, the difference of 3% may not seem important, even if very reliable, and yet it is when you consider the difference as a yearly cumulation over 60 years (the lifetime career of most drivers).&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Men drivers</span> in this generation will kill and maim hundreds of thousands of more people than the women of this generation, if this 3% difference is maintained.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The graphs show that for different types of car, drivers of sports cars and <span style="color:#FF8040">pick-up light trucks</span> block the passing lane somewhat more than the rest of the pack (15% vs. 11%), but the effect is not statistically significant for this sample.&nbsp; In terms of age, young drivers confess to blocking the passing lane somewhat more than middle aged (15% vs. 12%), but the effect is not statistically significant for this sample.&nbsp; There were not enough seniors in the sample to make this comparison.&nbsp; Similarly there is a trend, but not yet a statistical significance, for <span style="color:#FF8040">male drivers</span> to confess to more left lane blocking for some types of cars (<span style="color:#FF8040">luxury, sports, pick-up light trucks</span>), while women drivers confess to more of that than men in case of <span style="color:#FF8040">family cars</span> (surprise!!), <span style="color:#FF8040">SUVs</span> (expected!!), and <span style="color:#FF8040">vans</span>. &nbsp; I'll be watching these trends as new data come in.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table20" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#FFFFE1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:gray;font-weight:normal">Copyright 1998 The Seattle Times Company</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><br> National/World <span class="GramE">News :</span> Tuesday, March 02, 1999 <br> Bigger trucks, SUVs, vans put car riders at risk, study says <br> by The Associated Press<br> DETROIT - Tall, stiff-framed sport-utility vehicles, light trucks and minivans pose a greater risk of injury and death to car drivers and passengers in collisions, researchers say. </span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reported yesterday on four tests involving front-end crashes between a 1997 Honda Accord and four other vehicles: a 1998 Chevrolet S-10 compact pickup, a 1997 Dodge Caravan minivan, a 1997 Ford Explorer SUV and a 1997 Chevrolet Lumina sedan. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">In nearly every injury measurement, the driver dummy in the Accord suffered greater injuries in 35-mph crashes with the pickup, minivan and SUV than it did in a crash with the other sedan. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">A separate study, done by the University of Michigan, found that 2,000 people died in 1996 because <span class="GramE">their cars were hit by a truck, SUV or minivan rather than a car</span>. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://archives.seattletimes.com/cgi-bin/texis/web/vortex/display?storyID=139790&amp;query=SUV"><span class="GramE">read</span> the rest in the original here</a></span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; display:none;mso-hide:all"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table21" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#E8FFE8;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-weight:normal">From: RO &lt;ro.com&gt;</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">To: DrDriving@DrDriving.org</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Subject: Minivans</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">----------------------------------------</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Dr. Driving,</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">One comment on your survey. I think minivan drivers vastly overrate</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">their driving ability and underestimate how much they break the law. I</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">have had more close calls with minivans than any other category. They</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">don't use their mirrors and are constantly distracted by bratty kids,</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">makeup and cells phones. The only time I been run off of the road in</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Colorado is by a very scary minivan driver who did it deliberately</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">because she couldn't get into the left lane.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">RO </span></strong></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <form target="google_window"> <!-- SiteSearch Google --> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="client" value="pub-7012167060891058" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="domains" value="DrDriving.org;www.DrDriving.org" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="hl" value="en" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="cof" value="GALT:#008000;GL:1;DIV:#336699;VLC:663399;AH:center;BGC:FFFFFF;LBGC:336699;ALC:0000FF;LC:0000FF;T:000000;GFNT:0000FF;GIMP:0000FF;FORID:1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="safe" value="active" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="oe" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="ie" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="forid" value="1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </form> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="rage"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 39:&nbsp; Experiencing rage while driving</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:rage"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="rage39XageXgender.gif">EXPERIENCING RAGE--by Age and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="rage39Xtype.gif">EXPERIENCING RAGE--by Type of Car</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="rage39Xtype.gif">EXPERIENCING RAGE--by Type of Car and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="rage39XtypeXage.gif">EXPERIENCING RAGE--by Type of Car and Age</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">There seem to be no differences across the 10 States in this sub-sample, so I won't post the graphs for that analysis.&nbsp; But there are interesting differences if you look at age differences across gender.&nbsp; As you can see in the graphs I provide<span class="GramE">, &nbsp; young</span> men report having roadrageous emotions more regularly than young women (5.5 vs. 4.9).&nbsp; This is a significant difference (the error rate is less than .2 of a scale unit).&nbsp; Once again, I believe that this small but consistent and reliable difference has a huge impact over the long run.&nbsp; As the drivers move into the middle aged group (25 years to 54), the <span class="GramE">men&nbsp; report</span> a reduction in amount of road rage emotions (4.9), while the young women drivers remain about the same (4.8).&nbsp; Thus, men and women in the middle aged group report the same amount of road rage:&nbsp; 4.8 on a 10 point-scale from 0 (never) to 10 (regularly).&nbsp; By the time <span class="GramE">drivers</span> move into the senior group (55+), both men and women report less rage behind the wheel:&nbsp; 4.1 for senior men and 3.6 for senior women.&nbsp; However, this last result is not reliable because of the small sub-sample for senior women drivers.&nbsp; Let's watch it as a trend with the new data coming in.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">What about feeling rage in relation to the type of car one drives?&nbsp; Big significant effect here:&nbsp; on the higher end of road rage emotions we find the people who drive sports cars (5.5)<span class="GramE">,&nbsp; pick</span>-up light trucks (5.3), and economy cars (5.1).&nbsp; On the lower end of road rage emotions:&nbsp; drivers of vans (4.0), family cars (4.8), and SUVs (4.8).&nbsp; This is an unusual alignment where the "tough" vs. "soft" categories do not fit the usual pattern.&nbsp; Perhaps by looking at age and gender factors in relation to type of car, we might find out more.&nbsp; As you can see from the graphs and tables, type of car interacts with gender in intricate ways, and can be summarized as follows:</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table22" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td colspan="2" style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">TYPE OF CAR and ROAD RAGE feelings by MEN and WOMEN</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Economy cars</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Men report more road rage than women (5.4 vs. 4.8)</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Family cars</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Women report more road rage than men (5.0 vs. 4.5)</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:3"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Luxury cars</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Men and women report equal amounts of road rage--both relatively low</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(4.7 and 4.9 -- no difference within error)</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:4"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Sports cars &amp; pick-up light trucks</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Men and women report equal amounts of road rage--both relatively high (5.5 and 5.4 -- no difference within error)</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:5"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">SUVs</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Men report a lot more road rage than women (5.2 vs. 4.3)</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:6;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Vans</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Men report a lot more road rage than women--both relatively low</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(4.7 vs. 2.9)</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Now if you take a look at the graphs for type of car and age, you'll see that my sub-sample for seniors is too small to draw reliable conclusions.&nbsp; But if you leave them out, you can still compare the young group vs. the <span class="GramE">middle aged</span> group.&nbsp; Marked differences are visible as follows:</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table23" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td colspan="2" style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">TYPE OF CAR and AGE in relation to ROAD RAGE feelings</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Economy, Family, SUVs</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Young and middle aged drivers report equal amounts of road rage (around 4.9)</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Luxury, Sports, light trucks</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Young drivers report much more road rage than middle aged drivers</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(5.7 vs. 4.9)</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:3;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#B3EABA;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Vans</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#FDFAC6;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Young drivers report much less road rage than middle aged drivers</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(3.3 vs. 4.3 -- Caution:&nbsp; small sample here)</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Clearly, the type of car people drive makes a difference regarding their aggressiveness, and in this case, regarding how regularly they experience the emotion of rage and anger.&nbsp; What is the mechanism of this?&nbsp; One possibility is that these cars attract drivers who are inclined to be more aggressive, either in general, or in specific ways (remember, not all aggressive behaviors are correlated--people seem to pick and choose on the basis of sub-culture, age, gender, State they live in, and perhaps other factors not investigated here such as personality, life style, religiousness, and so on. &nbsp; More research is needed to look into these important issues.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Here is a letter I received that reflects the image drivers have of each other with regard to type of car:</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <address style="margin-left:22.5pt"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal">From MBowlerEsq@aol.com Sat Jan 9 10:48:47 1999</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-style: normal"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Date: Wed, 6 Jan 1999 19:41:24 -1000</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">From: MB@aol.com</span></strong><br> <span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">To</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">: dyc@DrDriving.org</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Subject: Motorcycles v. Mini-vans</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Dear Dr Driver:</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">I think I have solved part of the problem with middle-aged women in mini-vans</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">I encounter when driving my Harley. </span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">I finally sat inside one of those vehicles. One sits up high, as if one is in</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">a large truck. Yet, the rear view mirrors are about the same size as family</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">car mirrors. As someone who learned to drive years ago in a very large four</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">wheel drive vehicle (in Baja California before there was a paved road), I know</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">the mini-van's mirrors are way too small.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">In addition, such vehicles drive very differently than standard sedans. When I</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">was in the Air Force I was licensed to drive every size truck except semi-</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">light trucks. It takes some training and effort to drive them correctly. Most min-</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">van drivers are middle-aged, middle-class housewives who possibly never have</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">driven anything but a family car or sedan. Suddenly, they are driving one of</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">these behemoths around, probably with screaming kids in the back.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Car manufacturers should be required to install large, truck-style rear view</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">mirrors on min-vans. The drivers should place small convex mirrors (which can</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">be purchased at any auto-parts store) on the outside rear view mirrors. In</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">addition, the driver should be warned that <span class="GramE">these vehicles should be driven<br> with extreme caution, especially by those with no experience driving light trucks</span>.</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Taking a driving lesson or two probably wouldn't be a bad idea.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Until then, my Harley and I plan to steer clear of these moving accidents.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Best,</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Mike</span></strong></span><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></address> <div class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:center" align="center"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"> <hr align="center" size="2" width="100%"> </span></div> <address style="margin-left:22.5pt"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal">And here is a recent newspaper article: </span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></address> <p style="margin-left:30"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal">From gbarrett@gns.gannett.com Tue Jan 19 20:14:55 1999</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 11:52:59 -1000</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">From: gbarrett@gns.gannett.com</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">To: leon@hawaii.edu</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Subject: Article quoting you about SUVs</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Dr. James,</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Thanks very much for helping me with my article on SUVs. It went out</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">this week on Gannett's wire to 104 newspapers in the U.S. and Canada. ~</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Greg Barrett</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">A mighty fortress is our car</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">By GREG BARRETT</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Gannett News Service</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Forget the revved up 1950s Chevy with big black tires and missing</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">muffler. The muscle car of the millennium is tall and broad and prefers</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">to be called by its initials - SUV. Powerful and preppy like JFK or IBM.</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The SUV - Sport Utility Vehicle - is our land yacht, our tank, <span class="GramE">our 5,000<br> pounds of armor protecting us from road rage and pileups and that idiot<br> hugging</span> our bumper. So popular is this steel behemoth that in the last</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">decade the auto industry has increased its offering of SUVs from a half</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">dozen models to 40.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Sales of Sport Utility Vehicles in the United States topped 2.7 million</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">in 1998, up from 961,000 in 1988 and 2.4 million in 1997. In a survey</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">last year of 26,000 vehicle owners, 44 percent said they would consider</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">buying an SUV - making it the No. 1 vehicle considered, says</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">AutoPacific, Inc., an automotive marketing and product consulting firm.</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">"We forecast that by the year 2000, sales will exceed 3 million," says</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Jim Hall, AutoPacific's vice president of industry analysis.</span></strong><br> <span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">But why?</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal"> What is the draw of these road giants? To hear Georgia Tech</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">psychologist Jack Feldman tell it, SUVs are roadway cousins to the</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">trendy Timberland boots that scuff the polished floors of suburban</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">malls.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">"Most SUVs today will never see dirt, so you have lots of motives for</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">their popularity - fashion, practicality, safety," says Feldman, a</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">motorcyclist and driver of a 2,300-pound Mazda Miata. "An SUV is as</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">practical as a minivan but does not make you look like a soccer mom. For</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">a lot of people, that is a real incentive."</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">It's large like a linebacker, an engine with shoulder pads and menace.</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">"There's the mentality that a certain amount of power comes with size,</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">perceived or real," says Ken Roberts, spokesman for the Automotive</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Service Association, a nonprofit group of 55,000 mechanics and body shop</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">workers.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">"In the SUV the driver is elevated, sits higher, and looking down on</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">fellow motorists gives the greater impression of power. I am bigger than</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">you ... so I am a little more powerful."</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Beneath the hood, however, the SUV isn't much different than a pickup</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">truck or minivan. But those lack the polish and panache needed for</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">mainstream stardom. "The minivan is looked down on by some as wimpy,"</span></strong><br> <span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Roberts</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> says "The pickup is actually very similar to the SUV ... except</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">in appearance."</span></strong><br> <span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">And in name.</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal"> <span class="GramE">light</span> trucks get tagged with monikers such as Tacoma or</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Silverado. Minivans are Express or Venture. But the SUV, it drips</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">adrenaline: Navigator, Blazer, Bravada, <span class="GramE">Mountaineer</span>.</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">For 5-foot-3 Donna Martin of Winston-Salem, N.C., her Grand Cherokee</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Jeep SUV is a family protector. It may never carry the carcass of a</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">caribou, but it gives her a better view and 2,000 pounds more safety</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">than a pickup. "I like that I'm a little higher up and can see better,"</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">she says.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Towering above traffic, the SUV plods the road without making eye</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">contact with cars, light trucks or minivans. The Toyota Land Cruiser, a</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">popular SUV, stands 6-foot-1 compared to Toyota's top-selling Camry,</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">4-foot-6, or its Tacoma truck, 5-foot-2.</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Toyota's Sienna minivan is a relative tower at 5-foot-6 and 4,000</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">pounds, but it's small compared to the Land Cruiser's 5,115 pounds.</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">"If I'm in an accident," says Martin, a mother of one with another on</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">the way, "I'm less likely to get hurt."</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The National Highway Safety Administration concurs. In studies it says</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">when an SUV collides with the driver's side of a car, the car's driver</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">is 30 times more likely to die than the driver of the SUV. In car-to-car</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">accidents, the struck driver was 6 and a half times more likely to die.</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">"That's one of the reasons the federal government gnashes its teeth and</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">pulls its hair out about these things," Feldman says. "When the drivers</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">of these SUVs surround themselves in all this steel ... I would predict</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">they feel safer and maybe they aren't always as alert as, say, I'm going</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">to be in my little Miata."</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">In an 18-month-old ongoing Internet survey of drivers from the United</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">States and Canada, drivers of SUVs admit to being more aggressive -</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">quicker to tailgate, speed or change lanes without signaling, reports</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Leon James, a professor of traffic psychology at the University of</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Hawaii-Manoa. Anyone can answer James' questions on the Web site</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">(DrDriving.org), and so far 1,100 drivers have completed the Road</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Rage Survey.</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">"Women who drive SUVs are the most aggressive of all, even more</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">aggressive than the men who drive these cars," James says. "It's easy</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">for me to conclude at this point in the survey that the people who are</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">attracted to SUVs tend to be somewhat more aggressive than other</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">people."</span></strong><br> <br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Aggressive. Trendy. <span class="GramE">Wary of rush hour and, perhaps, of road rage.</span> All</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">these traits, Feldman says, drive the SUV boom: "It's really not that</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">complicated. ... None of this has Freudian overtones." </span></strong><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p style="margin-top:5.0pt;margin-right:11.25pt;margin-bottom:5.0pt;margin-left:11.25pt"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial"><a href="..:travel:songs.htm">Songs About Cars</a></span></b><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="insulting"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Item 26:&nbsp; Making an insulting gesture</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:insulting"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="gesture26XageXgender.gif">INSULTING GESTURE--by Age and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="gesture26XtypeXgender.gif">INSULTING GESTURE--by Type and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="gesture26Xstates.gif">INSULTING GESTURE--by States</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <form target="google_window"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="hl5" value="en" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="cof5" value="GALT:#008000;GL:1;DIV:#336699;VLC:663399;AH:center;BGC:FFFFFF;LBGC:336699;ALC:0000FF;LC:0000FF;T:000000;GFNT:0000FF;GIMP:0000FF;FORID:1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="safe5" value="active" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="oe5" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="ie5" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="forid5" value="1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing:1.5pt; background:white;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table55" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:32.0pt"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:32.0pt" nowrap="nowrap" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><a href="http://www.google.com/"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none"><img id="_x0000_i1113" src="http://www.google.com/logos/Logo_25wht.gif" alt="oogle" align="middle" border="0" height="34" width="34"></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:32.0pt" nowrap="nowrap"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="domains5" value="DrDriving.org;www.DrDriving.org" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span> <label for="sbi5" style="display:none"> Enter your search terms </label> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="q5" size="31" maxlength="255" value="" type="text"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="sa5" value="Search" type="submit"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" nowrap="nowrap"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing: 1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table56" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="sitesearch" value="" checked="checked" type="radio"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="color:black"> <label for="ss12" title="Search the Web"> Web</label></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="sitesearch" value="DrDriving.org" type="radio"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="color:black"> <label for="ss13" title="Search DrDriving.org"> DrDriving.org</label></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"><br> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"><br> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="client5" value="pub-7012167060891058" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </form> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Quite strong effects occur here, as you can see from the graphs.&nbsp; The pattern is similar to what we found with several other aggressive driving behaviors.&nbsp; A lot more <span style="color:#FF8040">young men drivers</span> confess to making insulting gestures on a regular basis than <span style="color:#FF8040">young women drivers</span>:&nbsp; 41% vs. 23%.&nbsp; Almost every other young male driver indulges in this dangerous habit, according to their own confession, while one in four young women drivers do it.&nbsp; How astonishing!&nbsp; Making an insulting gesture to another driver betrays a lack of respect for both others and the law.&nbsp; More States are legislating new laws that include jail term and fines for making insulting gestures (<a href="http://www.drdriving.org/police.html">see here</a>).&nbsp; <span class="GramE">Middle aged</span> drivers are also hot for this dangerous indulgence, somewhat more for men than women (27% vs. 24%).&nbsp; So it's good to see that half of those young men quit the habit when they move into the <span class="GramE"><span style="color:#FF8040">middle aged</span></span><span style="color:#FF8040"> group</span>.&nbsp; By the time male drivers are 55 and over (<span style="color:#FF8040">senior group</span>), only 17% report the aggressive habit of making insulting gestures.&nbsp; Strangely, more of the senior women drivers report holding on to this awful habit:&nbsp; 25% -- how astonishing ladies!! &nbsp; A note of caution:&nbsp; the female senior group was too small in this sample (only 18) so this is not a reliable finding.&nbsp; Let's watch for the new data coming in.</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">There is also a strong effect by type of car and gender.&nbsp; Men who drive <span style="color:#FF8040">sports cars, SUVs, and pick-up light trucks</span> are the most aggressive practicians of insulting gestures:&nbsp; 42%, 33%, and 37%, respectively. &nbsp; But <span style="color:#FF8040">women who drive sports cars and light trucks</span> are also high on insulting gestures:&nbsp; 32% and 37%.&nbsp; Fewer people report using insulting gestures when they drive <span style="color:#FF8040">economy cars</span> (25% for men, 19% for women) and <span style="color:#FF8040">vans</span> (21% for men, 11% for women).&nbsp; For <span style="color:#FF8040">family and luxury cars</span>, men and women report equal usage of insulting gestures (about 27%).</span></strong><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Statewise, the biggest self-confessed gesture users as a way to insult other drivers are in <span style="color:#FF8040">California (39%) and Pennsylvania (35%), with Colorado and Texas somewhat less (28%).</span>&nbsp; Those who report themselves using this offensive gesture least are the drivers in <span style="color:#FF8040">Florida (14%), Georgia (18%), New York (19%), and Ohio (20%).</span></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="combo"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040; font-weight:normal">Items 21, 30, and 38:&nbsp; Impatience, Hostility, and Road Rage</span></strong></a><span style="mso-bookmark:combo"></span><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="zone1combo21XageXgender.gif">THE ZONE OF IMPATIENCE--by Age and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="zone2combo30XageXgender.gif">THE ZONE OF HOSTILITY--by Age and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal"><a href="zone3combo38XageXgender.gif">THE ZONE OF ROAD RAGE--by Age and Gender</a></span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial">My survey is divided into three categories of items, each being an escalation of aggressive driving behavior.&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Zone 1 is called the zone of Impatience</span> because it lists items like mild speeding (5 to 10 above limit), making rolling stops, lane hopping, swearing, going through red light, etc. (you can see the full wording of <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/surveyblank.html">all the items here</a>). Zone 2 is made of more serious aggressive behaviors such as serious speeding (15 to 25 above limit), yelling and honking at other drivers, tailgating, shining your <span class="GramE">brights</span> to annoy a driver, and blocking the passing lane.&nbsp; This zone is called <span style="color:#FF8040">the zone of Hostility</span> for obvious reasons.&nbsp; Finally, we reach <span style="color:#FF8040">Zone 3, which is the zone of Road Rage</span><span class="GramE">: &nbsp; brake</span> job, cutting off, blocking, chasing, fighting.&nbsp; I have one "combo scale" that <span class="GramE">asks</span> "Combined, how regularly do you do things in this category" for each of the three zones. </span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Times"><o:p></o:p></span></strong></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">The numbers at the bottom tell the tale.&nbsp; It's a 10-point scale (like the other scales in this survey) going from 1=never to 10=quite regularly.&nbsp; Note the range as you run your eyes left to right:&nbsp; From a high of 6.9 to a low of 2.1. &nbsp; I can summarize the pattern as follows:</span></b></p> <p><span class="GramE"><b><span style="font-family:Arial">for</span></b></span><b><span style="font-family:Arial"> <span style="color:#FF8040">Zone 1 aggressive behaviors</span> (being impatient or rushing all the time), the young of both genders are the most aggressively impatient, and among these, the men are more so than the women. The middle aged drivers are only slightly lower, and equal for both genders (6.4).&nbsp; The senior drivers are quite a bit lower, for both men and women (about 4.8).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">For <span style="color:#FF8000">Zone 2 aggressive behaviors</span> (being hostile and attacking), the young men are much more aggressive and hostile than the young women (5.4 vs. 4.4).&nbsp; This makes sense culturally, since women avoid aggressive hostile behavior with strangers much more than men.&nbsp; The male aggressive norm is obviously stronger than the female in our society, so this cultural norm is also reflected in driving behavior.&nbsp; Even as drivers enter the <span class="GramE">middle aged</span> group, the men are significantly more aggressive and hostile than the women (4.4 vs. 4.2 --small but reliable, the error rate is only .15).&nbsp; By the time we enter the senior age category, drivers are much less hostile, but the men still more than the women (3.4 vs. 2.8).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">For <span style="color:#FF8040">Zone 3 aggressive behaviors</span> or road rage (cutting off, break job, blocking, chasing, fighting), all drivers report a lower incidence, but the pattern remains.&nbsp; Young men more violent than young women drivers (3.9 vs. 2.9), middle aged men more violent than middle aged women (3.0 vs. 2.7), and senior men more than senior women drivers (2.5 vs. 2.1).&nbsp; Note that the overall occurrence of aggressive behaviors in the three zones decreases:&nbsp; for Impatience (Zone 1), the range is from 6.9 down to 4.7); for Hostility (Zone 2), the range is from 5.4 to 2.8); for Road Rage violence, the range is 3.9 to 2.1).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table24" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#F8F8EF;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;color:red;font-weight:normal">RESEARCH IN AUSTRALIA</span></strong><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="_Toc465849221"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal">1.3 Demographic Comparisons</span></strong></a></p> <p><a name="_Toc465849222"></a><a name="_Toc463940948"></a><span style="mso-bookmark:_Toc465849222"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal">1.3.1 Age groups</span></strong></span> </p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The survey clearly shows that age is the main predictor of how frequently drivers exceed the speed limit. Only 4% of drivers aged over 60 say they often exceed the speed limit. The figure rises to 7% of drivers <span class="GramE">in the 40-59 age group</span>. However, 14% of 25-39 year olds and 19% of the under 24s admit they often exceed the speed limit.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The youngest group surveyed, 15-24 years of age, is more focused on alcohol (66%) as a road safety issue than speed (54%). Also, they are the most likely to say that they don t drink if they are going to drive (58%), against the average of 40%. People in this age group who do drink remain the most interested in using a self-operated breath testing machine, with 47% saying 'very likely' in comparison to the national average of 28%. </span></strong></p> <p><a name="_Toc463940949"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight: normal">1.3.2 </span></strong></a><span class="GramE"><span style="mso-bookmark: _Toc463940949"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Male :</span></strong></span></span><span style="mso-bookmark:_Toc463940949"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> Female</span></strong></span> </p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">The survey shows a marked difference in attitudes between females and males when it comes to speeding and drink driving.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">More females than males place speed as the main cause of road crashes (39% to 31% of males), think that there should be strict enforcement of speed limits for 60 km/hr zones (49% to 39% of males) and for 100 km/hr zones (42% to only 24% of males). Fewer females than males believe it is okay to exceed the speed limit if you are driving safely (27% to 39% of males). </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">These attitudes may be reflected in the fact that fewer females (16%) than males (25%) said they had been booked for speeding in the last two years. However, the incidence of females being booked has grown from 12% in 1998 to 16% in the 1999 survey.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Females who hold a driver s licence are significantly more likely than males to say they do not drink at any time (21% of females, 13% of males). A much larger proportion of females (67%) than males (48%) say that they do not drink before they drive. Females surveyed are still less likely than males to be aware of the correct guidelines for alcohol consumption by their sex, particularly for the first hour.</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">When it comes to being a pedestrian, females (61%), especially in the 15-24 age group (71%), are significantly more likely than males (49%) to think that having a BAC over .05 would affect their ability to act safely as a pedestrian.</span></strong></p> <p><span style="font-family:Arial"><a href="http://www.atsb.gov.au/road/res-exec/cr188ex.cfm"><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">original</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> report here</span></strong></a></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;</span></b><span style="font-family: Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p><a name="initiatives"><b><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040">Items 74 through 79:&nbsp; Support for Initiatives</span></b></a><span style="mso-bookmark:initiatives"></span><b><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="enforcement74XtypeXgender.gif">MORE LAW ENFORCEMENT--by Type and Gender</a></span></b><b><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="surveillance75XtypeXgender.gif">MORE ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE--by Type and Gender</a></span></b><b><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red"><a href="drivered76XtypeXgender.gif">MORE DRIVER ED--by Type and Gender</a></span></b><b><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">This part of the results attempts to relate the dynamics of aggressive driving to one's <span style="color:#FF8040">philosophy and ideology about driving</span> and its various societal institutions.&nbsp; These initiatives include three areas<span class="GramE">: &nbsp; more</span> <span style="color:#FF8040">law enforcement</span>, better <span style="color:#FF8040">training</span> for new drivers, and lowered <span style="color:#FF8040">insurance</span> premiums to reward safer drivers.&nbsp; Is there a relationship between type of car driven and one's support for these initiatives? &nbsp; The answer is <span class="GramE">Yes</span>, depending on gender and age.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Which drivers support <span style="color:#FF8040">law enforcement initiatives</span> (item 74<span class="GramE">) ?</span>&nbsp; You can click on the graph to see.&nbsp; The answer is the same as for the next question, so I will describe it only once:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <div align="center"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table25" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#FFFFE8;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">DrDriving:&nbsp; I got a speeding ticket once. I was going about 70 in a 55 zone. That ticket cost me 95 dollars! <span class="GramE">That</span> 95 dollars was enough to make me not speed for about 6 months. Then I was back speeding again. I still speed. With a little more caution, but I still speed. </span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">I see two solutions to the problem of speeding. One, we could ALL become more responsible drivers, looking out for our fellow man, obeying the law to the tee, and imposing a little social and personal responsibility. But since there is FAT chance of that ever happening, there is a second solution. We could impose harsher sanctions for those that do break the law, speeding, driving <span class="GramE">drunk</span>, whatever. Upping the fine a couple hundred dollars perhaps? Revoking a license for a period of time perhaps? In Singapore, they have STIFF penalties for littering and vandalism. I'm sure you all remember the caning incident a couple years back. Singapore also has one of the cleanest cities in the world. Imposing harsh penalties for <span class="GramE">law breakers</span> works. But do we want to live in a country like that? I know I don't. </span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Which drivers support <span style="color:#FF8040">more electronic surveillance</span> (item 75)?&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">Women drivers, more than men</span>, support the idea of increasing electronic surveillance to combat aggressive driving (5.8 vs. 5.1).&nbsp; There is one exception:&nbsp; women who drive <span style="color:#FF8040">SUVs</span> have the lowest support for electronic surveillance initiatives (5.2--same as men who drive these vehicles).&nbsp; Among men, the lowest <span class="GramE">support for electronic surveillance are</span> the drivers of <span style="color:#FF8040">sports and luxury</span> cars (4.9 and 4.5 out of a 10-point scale); the highest support among men came from the van drivers (6.1).&nbsp; Among women, lowest support came from SUV drivers (as just said--5.1), and sports car drivers (5.2), while the greatest support for electronic surveillance among women were those who drive <span style="color:#FF8040">vans</span> (6.6) and <span style="color:#FF8040">luxury</span> cars (6.5).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Which drivers support <span style="color:#FF8040">more driver education and training</span> (item 76)?&nbsp; The <span style="color:#FF8040">highest support</span> comes from female drivers of light trucks (7.6--on the 10-point scale) and male drivers of vans (7.2).&nbsp; The <span style="color:#FF8000">lowest support</span> comes from male drivers of sports cars (6.0) and economy cars (6.0), and female drivers of SUVs (5.9--this is the lowest of all the sub-groups!!).&nbsp; Another way of describing the pattern shown by the graphs is this:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">For drivers of <span style="color:#FF8040">light trucks</span>, men are a lot less supportive of increased driver education and training than women drivers of light trucks (6.6 vs. 7.6).&nbsp; The reverse is true for <span style="color:#FF8000">SUVs</span>:&nbsp; men are a lot more supportive of more training than women drivers of SUVs (6.9 vs. 5.9).&nbsp; For <span style="color:#FF8040">vans</span>, men and women are equally supportive (at a high of 7.2 each).&nbsp; For <span style="color:#FF8000">economy and family cars</span>, women are more supportive than men (about 6.8 vs. 6.3).&nbsp; For <span style="color:#FF8000">luxury</span> cars, men and women are equal in their support (6.8).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Which <span class="GramE">drivers</span> support <span style="color:#FF8040">more insurance rebates for good drivers</span> (item 77)?&nbsp; The highest support comes from <span style="color:#FF8000">female drivers of luxury cars</span> (9.3 out of a 10-point scale), while the lowest support comes from <span style="color:#FF8040">male drivers of economy cars</span> (7.1--but note this is pretty high anyway).&nbsp; Women give varying amounts of support for insurance rebates depending on the type of car they drive.&nbsp; For people who drive <span style="color:#FF8000">economy cars</span>, women are more supportive than men (8.1 vs. 7.1). &nbsp; Similarly for luxury and sports cars:&nbsp; women are more supportive of the rebate idea then men (9.3 vs. 7.9 for luxury, and 8.2 vs. 7.7 for sports cars.&nbsp; But for people who drive <span style="color:#FF8040">light trucks</span>, women are somewhat less supportive than men for insurance premium rebates for good drivers (8.2 vs. 8.5).&nbsp;&nbsp; Women and men are equally supportive of insurance rebates when they drive <span style="color:#FF8000">SUVs</span> (8.4), <span style="color:#FF8000">vans</span> (8.6), and <span style="color:#FF8000">family cars</span> (8.4)--all relatively high support.&nbsp; Here is a recent letter complaining about female drivers of SUVs:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p style="margin-left:85;margin-right:85"><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Date: Fri, 5 Feb 1999 07:46:57 -1000<br> From: Di@netcom.ca<br> To: dyc@DrDriving.org<br> Subject: Dangerous Driving -SUV's<br> <br> DrDriving,<br> In Calgary, Western Canada, I see a problem with the feminization of<br> society, and new found freedom to "get even" by females using SUV's. The<br> arrogance, plain stupidity and downright dangerous actions at high speed<br> by female SUV drivers in Calgary <span class="GramE">is</span> really scary. These are not all<br> teenage girls either. The majority are married females, 30 and 40<br> something, usually mothers, who, I guess take out their frustration with<br> husband and kids on other drivers with their SUV's. When I see them<br> approaching, I move out of their way, hoping they will go and have their<br> accidents with somebody else!&nbsp; And they do! <o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><a name="interpretations"><b><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040">My Interpretations of These Findings</span></b></a><span style="mso-bookmark:interpretations"></span><b><span style="font-family:Arial"><o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">I take these results to be evidence that aggressive driving is a <span style="color:#FF8000">cultural norm</span> that we acquire from parents and the media.&nbsp; These anti-social practices behind the wheel have become a tradition.&nbsp; Children imbibe them, boys and girls each in their own ways, suitable to their gender and age.&nbsp; Our driver education begins as infants while riding in cars driven by adults who yell, curse, swear, make insulting gestures, break driving regulations like going through red light or doing some serious speeding.&nbsp; <span class="GramE">Everyone</span> of these aggressive and hostile behaviors is documented in this national survey of 1095 drivers.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">The culturally transmitted norms of aggressive driving are not unitary and rigid, but vary demographically through the population.&nbsp; <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/dbb.html">Drivers behave badly</a> in a variety of ways, and these varieties are influenced by geographic state and type of car.&nbsp; Numerous statistically significant results are presented in dozens of graphs and tables throughout this document so that everyone can examine the pattern of relationships between specific types of aggressive behaviors in relation to age of drivers, their gender, the type of car they drive, and the state they drive in.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table26" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#D2FFE9;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <address><a name="statistics"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial; mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal">Date</span></strong></a><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-weight:normal;font-style:normal">: Thu, 18 Feb 1999 12:06:21 -1000</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; font-style:normal"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">From: CE &lt;b@micronet.net&gt;</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">To: dyc@DrDriving.org</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Subject: US traffic fatality injury statistics by Age location<span class="GramE">.......</span> </span></strong></span><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></address> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">DrDriving:&nbsp; Please look at these.</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">US traffic fatality injury statistics by Age location<span class="GramE">.......</span></span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Age.html">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Age.html</a> &nbsp; Age of Persons Killed or Injured</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/AgeGroup.html">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/AgeGroup.html</a> &nbsp; Motor Vehicle Occupant Fatality and Injury Rates by Age Group, 1975-1997 per Year</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/AgeGroup.html">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/BAC.html</a> &nbsp; Drivers Killed in Crashes, by Age and Driver's Blood Alcohol Concentration</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Crash88_.html">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Crash88_.html</a> &nbsp; Crashes by Crash Severity, 1988-1997</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Fatality.html">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Fatality.html</a> &nbsp; Persons Killed or Injured by Population, Drivers, Vehicles, and Miles Traveled, 1966-1997</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Pedest.html">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Pedest.html</a> &nbsp; Pedestrians Killed or Injured by Age and Sex</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Persons.html">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Persons.html</a> &nbsp; Persons Killed Vehicle Type by and Person Type 1975-1997</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Persons.html">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/Restrain.html</a> &nbsp; Occupants Killed and Injured, by Restraint Use and Type of Restraint</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"><a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/State.htm">www.disastercenter.com/traffic/State.htm</a> &nbsp; Persons Killed and Fatality Rates by State, 1996</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">www<a href="http://www.disastercenter.com/traffic/tpe.htm">.disastercenter.com/traffic/tpe.htm</a> &nbsp; Persons Killed, by State and Person Type</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;color:#800040">As a society, therefore, we must recognize that cultural transmission and tradition are responsible factors in aggressive driving, and contribute to it</span></b><b><span style="font-family:Arial">.&nbsp; Therefore cultural techniques of re-education are needed to reverse the generational trend.&nbsp; We can collect all sorts of advice and hints for how to stop the increase in aggressive driving (see my <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/tips.html">large collection here</a>, culled from the Web).&nbsp; If this trend is not reversed, we can expect aggressive driving to increase, despite the more extensive law enforcement and electronic 'surveillance' initiatives that are being <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/police.html">instituted throughout the country</a>.&nbsp; The full solution or elimination of this problem lies in consciously and deliberately reversing the cultural tradition that allows us to express hostility behind the wheel (see here for a list of the <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/behaviors.html">top 100 complaints</a> drivers have about one another).&nbsp; It's obvious that feelings run very intense and to solve this problem is easier said than done.&nbsp; In my role as DrDriving, I have been providing various types of self-management tools and socially dynamic methods <span class="GramE">of&nbsp; motivating</span> drivers to accept the idea of Lifelong Driver Education as a matter of social responsibility, as outlined <a href="#bird%27s_eye_view">above in this document.</a> The overall goal of driver education must be explicitly stated in positive terms, rather than merely negative.&nbsp; The goal must be to evolve a cultural norm for driving that can be called <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/yarr/james1.html">Supportive Driving</a>, in opposition to Aggressive Driving.&nbsp; Oddly enough, research by psychologists has remained limited to a few problems--see my large <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/references.html">bibliography of driving research here</a>.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">We need to understand the difference between these two opposing driving styles and philosophies.&nbsp; Car society is now beginning its second century.&nbsp; For the first century society was able to license drivers through minimal training and examination, and this approach worked for a while, but things started braking down in the 1950s when more and more drivers began to drive the fast moving vehicles placed in their hands.&nbsp; The death rate climbed to above 50,000 for many years.&nbsp; It was brought down to its current 40,000 fatalities a year through better car design, better road engineering, more safety laws, <span class="GramE">better</span> paramedical services.&nbsp; Still, 40,000 fatalities year after year turns the highways into war zones (about 50,000 American fatalities were incurred in the entire six-year Vietnam war).&nbsp; Add to this amazing carnage, 5 million crashes with enormous suffering and disruption to lives for millions, and an economic cost of 200 billion per year, and you begin to realize that we are having an enormously serious problem to fix.&nbsp; The goal:&nbsp; to turn the 177 million drivers in this nation (the number is climbing...) into Supportive Drivers.&nbsp; Since this philosophy is contrary to tradition, habit, and convenience we are faced with people's massive opposition to their self-transformation.&nbsp; Drivers have <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/anger1.html">their own theory </a>as to why <span class="GramE">drivers makes</span> them mad.&nbsp; These popular but non-adaptive attitudes and rationalizations must be abandoned in favor of emotionally more intelligent alternatives.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">I have been studying this resistance to driver self-improvement for two decades, <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/ch14.html">first in myself</a>, then with <a href="http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/leonj/leonj/leonpsy/traffic/tpintro.html">other drivers</a> as well.&nbsp; A necessary departing strategy had to be the identification of aggressive behaviors by drivers.&nbsp; This led to a taxonomy or <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/oldch6.html">inventory of hundreds of driving behaviors</a> in three areas of the driver's habits:&nbsp; <span style="color:#FF8040">affective</span> (the driver's attitudes, motives, and moral feelings), <span style="color:#FF8040">cognitive</span> (the driver's emotional intelligence and judgment), and <span style="color:#FF8000">sensorimotor</span> (the driver's vehicle manipulation (including gestures and verbalizations).&nbsp; I also used this taxonomy of driver behaviors to <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/surveys/chart1.html">catalogue the complaints </a>drivers have about one another.&nbsp; You can get the details by examining the various links I provided for each topic in my <a href="#bird%27s_eye_view">table above</a> outlining the details of lifelong driver education.&nbsp; I have also used this approach in a <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/video/">video course for driver re-education</a> based on these same objectives.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">The two sides of this <span style="color:red">Driving Covenant</span> <span class="GramE">shows</span> where we are and where we must be headed as an entire generation of 177 million drivers.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <div align="center"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table27" border="1" cellpadding="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td colspan="2" style="background:#D8FAFE;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">Transforming Ourselves from a Pack of Aggressive Drivers to a Community of Supportive Drivers</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1"> <td style="background:#F3D7D1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">emotional</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> helplessness as a driver</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">WHERE WE ARE AS</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:red;font-weight:normal">AGGRESSIVE DRIVERS</span></strong></span></p> </td> <td style="background:#DBF0DC;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">emotional</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> competence as a driver</span></strong><span style="font-family:Arial"><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">WHERE WE MUST BE HEADED AS</span></strong><br> <strong><span style="font-family:Arial;color:blue;font-weight:normal">SUPPORTIVE DRIVERS</span></strong></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:2;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="background:#F3D7D1;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">feeling</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> coerced by another driver's provocation</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">being</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> intolerant of drivers who fall short of one's own standards</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">being</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> blind to one's own aggressiveness or provocative behaviors</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">believing</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> one's own false suspicions about other drivers</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">feeling</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> justified in punishing other drivers for the sake of righting the wrong they commit</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l2 level1 lfo2; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">maintaining</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> a hostile attitude on highways that is hurtful to society and community</span></strong></p> </td> <td style="background:#DBF0DC;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">exercising</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> choices as to how we express our feelings</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">managing</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> disruptive emotions or impulses</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">staying</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> composed or calm in the face of provocation</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">thinking</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> clearly under emergency conditions</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">learning</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> de-escalating skills to back out of fights</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">accepting</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> the driving issue as a character issue or a moral one</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l1 level1 lfo3; tab-stops:list .5in"><!--[if !supportLists]--><span style="font-family:Symbol; mso-fareast-font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Symbol"><span style="mso-list:Ignore"><span style="font:7.0pt &quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span><!--[endif]--><span class="GramE"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal">accepting</span></strong></span><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;font-weight:normal"> the idea of lifelong driver self-improvement</span></strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">I believe that the enormous driving challenge that is facing our society today can become an opportunity for strengthening our community and evolving more humane and compassionate relations with each other.&nbsp; Instead of mutual antagonism, we will feel and express mutual support.&nbsp; <span style="color:#804000">Driving can increase our humanity by forcing us to make peace on our highways and streets and parking lots</span>.&nbsp; We must, or else we will see an increase of hostile behavior in public places, as people are now beginning to talk about parking lot rage, pedestrian rage, <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/bicycling.html">bicyclists rage</a>, air rage, the millennium rage, neighbor rage, and so on.&nbsp; Let's not go that route!&nbsp; And yet more and more people will be tempted to slide into these dangers forms of behaviors due to social imitation and <span class="GramE">emotional&nbsp; contagion</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">Reporters often ask me this question:&nbsp; What solutions do you have for the aggressive driving problem?&nbsp; As I have outlined above, <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/threestep.html">the Threestep Program</a> specifies the problem and the solution.&nbsp; <span style="color:#804000">Step 1 is "A" for Acknowledge--that is, as a driver I must acknowledge that I exhibit aggressive behaviors, either overtly or internally, or both.</span>&nbsp; This is a big step for most drivers.&nbsp; To make this first step means that you are confessing to your bad driving behaviors and that you're giving up the reputation you have with yourself as being a good driver ("I'm an excellent driver" comes to the lips of two out of three drivers you ask--<a href="#excellence">see </a>above). &nbsp; I was intensely "flamed" (polemical attacks in electronic newsgroups) when I participated in the public electronic forum discussions among drivers who vehemently criticized "stupid" drivers for their seemingly lack of consideration for other drivers--see the detailed analysis <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/newsgr.html">in my students' reports</a>).<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">My point in those messages to those drivers was that we all make mistakes and that we have different standards and skills--therefore we've got to be more tolerant of these people instead of becoming more aggressive against them.&nbsp; For example, there are more elderly people who drive (and this is going to increase markedly as the baby boomers get into the senior group, we are told by the experts).&nbsp; Today there are more handicapped people who drive, and they legitimately do so under the protection of the law.&nbsp; More people who are on medications or have some temporary physical problem (pain, itch, cramp, ache, gas, stomach reflux, nervous tremors, <span class="GramE">heart</span> arrhythmia--all medical condition that come on suddenly.&nbsp; With 125 million on the road you can see that hundreds of thousands of drivers are out there every day under some kind of unavoidable handicap.&nbsp; There are more tourists and strangers around who don't know the local customs.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial">So I told these drivers it's not rational to blame these drivers who appear to be doing something "stupid" due to their handicap.&nbsp; Nor is it compassionate, in my judgment.&nbsp; Nor is it legal to retaliate with aggressive acts such as they were fantasizing doing (for the fun of it), or joking about doing.&nbsp; So I was hooted out of the gallery, so to speak.&nbsp; There was tremendous resistance, and personal attacks on me, <span class="GramE">when&nbsp; I</span> argued that Princess Diana's tragic crash in the tunnel in Paris was a case of aggressive driving (or "road rage") by the driver who took enormous and very bad risks as a result his emotional inability to deal with the Paparasize="3i pursuit in a calmer and safer manner.&nbsp; This would be obvious to any safety or security personnel.&nbsp; I kept copies of these exchanges as a way of increasing awareness that our current societal driving philosophy--the driving norm--is shocking and harmful. To witness yourself the extreme abuse <span class="GramE">drivers</span> heap on one another, <a href="http://www.drdriving.org/newsgr.html">see these reports by my students</a>.&nbsp; You can also look at unanalyzed files I kept of many of these vehement self-portrayals--here.<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <form target="google_window"> <p class="MsoNormal"><strong><span style="font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="hl6" value="en" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="cof6" value="GALT:#008000;GL:1;DIV:#336699;VLC:663399;AH:center;BGC:FFFFFF;LBGC:336699;ALC:0000FF;LC:0000FF;T:000000;GFNT:0000FF;GIMP:0000FF;FORID:1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="safe6" value="active" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="oe6" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="ie6" value="ISO-8859-1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="forid6" value="1" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span></span></strong><strong><span style="font-family:Times;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi"><o:p></o:p></span></strong></p> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing:1.5pt; background:white;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table59" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;height:32.0pt"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:32.0pt" nowrap="nowrap" valign="top"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><a href="http://www.google.com/"><span style="text-decoration:none;text-underline:none"><img id="_x0000_i1126" src="http://www.google.com/logos/Logo_25wht.gif" alt="oogle" align="middle" border="0" height="34" width="34"></span></a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:32.0pt" nowrap="nowrap"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="domains6" value="DrDriving.org;www.DrDriving.org" type="hidden"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span> <label for="sbi6" style="display:none"> Enter your search terms </label> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="q6" size="31" maxlength="255" value="" type="text"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><input name="sa6" value="Search" type="submit"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt" nowrap="nowrap"> <table class="MsoNormalTable" style="mso-cellspacing: 1.5pt;mso-yfti-tbllook:1184" id="table60" border="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes"> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="sitesearch" value="" checked="checked" type="radio"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="color:black"> <label for="ss14" title="Search the Web"> Web</label></span><o:p></o:p></span></p> </td> <td style="padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt"> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;"><input name="sitesearch" value="DrDriving.org" type="radio"> <span style="mso-spacerun:yes">&nbsp;</span><span style="color:black"> <label for="ss15" title="Search DrDriving.org"> D